Viktor Orbán’s self image: A worthy successor to István Bethlen

It was about a year ago in November that I wrote a post on the political career of István Bethlen, prime minister of Hungary between 1921 and 1931. It was right after the week-long power outage during which I decided to reread Ignác Romsics’s biography of Bethlen, the most talented politician of the interwar period. At that time I didn’t think that within a year István Bethlen would be declared the twentieth-century forerunner of Viktor Orbán. At least in the eyes of the head of the current government, whose activities of the last three and a half years have earned him the epithet “Godfather.” Poor Bethlen is turning in his grave.

It has been obvious for a long time that Viktor Orbán and his entourage have been madly looking for an ideological forebear on the right who is not tainted by servility to Hitler’s Third Reich or by rabid anti-Semitism.  But, given Hungarian historical reality, it was hard to find the right man. During the first Orbán administration they experimented with early heroes and religious figures: St. Stephen and the Virgin Mary. But it was tough to adapt the activities of an eleventh-century king about whom we know relatively little to the political needs of today. Stephen is still venerated, however. Only recently 35,000 graduating high school students received from the Orbán government a free copy of György Györffy’s István király és műve (1977), a 667-page tome.

The reburial of Miklós Horthy during the Antall government gave impetus to a reexamination of the Horthy regime, presumably in the hope that Horthy’s person and the whole period might be presented in a more favorable light. But it is hard to be sanguine about a twenty-five-year period that led to a lost war, incredible human and material suffering, the Holocaust, and an outright Nazi regime. A hopeless task, if you ask me. The reevaluation of Horthy is still under way, and a Horthy cult emerged recently that was originally initiated by Jobbik and rapidly taken over by the government itself. Writers who by and large were supporters of the Horthy regime began to be rehabilitated, but it turned out that the politicians who were promoting their revival knew little about their literary worth or their political orientation that led them badly astray.

But now they seem to have found their man in István Bethlen, who had nothing to do with Hitler, had to hide from the Nazis when they occupied Hungary on March 19, 1944, and finally died in a prison hospital in Moscow after he was arrested by the Soviets. It is, on the surface, a perfect fit.  The government decided to unveil a statue of the former prime minister on October 8, 2013, Bethlen’s birthday.

A couple of days before the statue was unveiled a conference was organized under the sponsorship of László Kövér, who was also the keynote speaker.  Kövér came up with a surprising assessment of Bethlen who, according to him, was a divisive man because “those who were interested in the everlasting submission and debilitation of Hungary wanted to forget him. But those whose goal was an independent and strong Hungary remember him and want to remind others of the man.” This is a typical example of how Fidesz politicians operate, excluding those who don’t happen to agree with the official view even when it comes to an assessment of a historical figure. Naturally, there were allusions to Marxism and “the lies of pseudo-liberals.”

Géza Stremeny: István Bethlen (1875-1946)

Géza Stremeny: István Bethlen (1874-1946)

At the unveiling that took place on Saint George’s Square in the Castle district Viktor Orbán was introduced as “the prime minister who shapes our age.” He then gave a fifteen-minute speech. But before I analyze Orbán’s speech I would like to say a few words about the statue itself. The sculptor was Géza Stremeny, a well-known artist. I checked out some of his work and like most of it, but this particular one reminds me, at least in composition, too much of the truly brilliant sculpture of Mihály Károlyi by Imre Varga, which was unceremoniously removed from Kossuth Square in front of the Hungarian Parliament. Both have a frame around the figure, but Stremeny’s is stark, with an echo of a gallows, as opposed to Varga’s rounded frame. Both men stand in a similar pose, leaning on a cane. I suggest taking a look at the Károlyi statue to see what I mean.

But let’s move on to the speech that was received with mixed emotions in opposition circles. There is no question that Orbán portrayed himself as a worthy equal of István Bethlen. “When István Bethlen occupied the office of the prime minister Hungary was losing on all fronts. It was a country that was isolated; it was on the verge of economic collapse. Let’s face it, it was a humiliated country.” But Bethlen realized that “Hungary shouldn’t expect a better future with the help of foreign lands but only from its own diligence and self-sacrificing work….  He believed that creative work is the only right strategy.”

In reality, Bethlen managed to get a low-interest loan from the League of Nations which at that point served as a kind of IMF. Even Orbán had to admit that much, but he immediately added that Bethlen didn’t use the borrowed money for welfare purposes but for job creation. “This policy was a brave one which bore fruit. In a decade Hungary managed to stand on its own feet again.” Clearly, this is what’s going on at the present time in Hungary. “We can say with all modesty that although there is still much work to be done, by now Hungary has regained its vitality and is getting stronger every day.”

Orbán’s speechwriters managed to find a Bethlen passage from 1931 that also came in handy: “We must realize that there are always those who want to use the economic crisis to their own advantage…. That’s why some people blacken the good name of the country abroad because they hope that the foreign powers will force such reforms on us that will enable them to gain power.” A little later we will understand what Bethlen was actually talking about.

Finally, he made sure that Bethlen will receive his deserved place in the national pantheon right after Ferenc Rákóczi, István Széchenyi, and Lajos Kossuth. He closed his speech “Glory to István Bethlen, glory to Hungary’s prime minister.”

What Viktor Orbán didn’t mention was that by 1931 Hungary was so indebted that the country was on the verge of insolvency. Foreign financial experts suggested another loan from the League of Nations, advice Bethlen refused to take. It turned out that the Hungarian government had falsified its financial records in the past and therefore the League of Nations insisted on a careful monitoring of the government’s use of any possible loan. This is what Bethlen wanted to avoid, just as Viktor Orbán didn’t want any low-interest loans from the IMF for the very same reason. As a result the bottom fell out, Bethlen had to resign in August 1931, and shortly after his resignation Hungary had to suspend payments on its foreign loans.

Viktor Orbán often talks about the magic ten years that would be necessary to complete his work. One wonders, as did the economist Péter Mihályi, whether Orbán had Bethlen’s ten years in mind. If he did, he forgot to mention the price the country had to pay for the relative well being of the 1920s which was financed not by self-sacrificing work, as Bethlen promised, but largely by foreign loans. It might have been wise to do a little research on the circumstances of Bethlen’s resignation instead of cherry picking a few sentences that meshed with his own ideas.

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buddy
Guest

Slightly OT but speaking of statues, this may be a good time to point out that a statue of Miklós Horthy will be unveiled tomorrow in Budapest’s Liberty Square. A counterdemonstration is also planned. I just hope it doesn’t get violent.

andy 'with a view from hell'
Guest

I enjoy the statement about the cherry-picked quotes… While we’re counting the cherries it might be worth the while while to take the previous 365 (say 200 ‘working’… days) and count the total number of puposeful misstatements, mis-interpretations, incorrect pieces of information, spoken by the Fidesz apparatchik, (includiung their parliamentarians) say 500 occasions per diem, and we’d come out at a very conservative estimate of 100,000 purposeful lies…

And now that the Hungarian Nation has been amply instructed in the know-how, add to that the massiveness of the wrong information circulating within the population and the number is exponentially large, perhaps beyond counting…

This place would come out No. 1 and into the Guinness book of records if we had lockable portable lie-detectors on every ‘human’…

An
Guest

“What Viktor Orbán didn’t mention was that by 1931 Hungary was so indebted that the country was on the verge of insolvency. Foreign financial experts suggested another loan from the League of Nations, advice Bethlen refused to take. It turned out that the Hungarian government had falsified its financial records in the past and therefore the League of Nations insisted on a careful monitoring of the government’s use of any possible loan. This is what Bethlen wanted to avoid, just as Viktor Orbán didn’t want any low-interest loans from the IMF for the very same reason. As a result the bottom fell out, Bethlen had to resign in August 1931, and shortly after his resignation Hungary had to suspend payments on its foreign loans.”

Not exactly a good omen….

tappanch
Guest
“‘Mr Hirschler,’ she whispered, ‘that friendly gendarme was here just now. He said that from tomorrow they’ll be beating people up to make them admit where they’ve hidden their jewellery. They’ll do it in alphabetical order, and my father’s name starts with B.’ ‘Have you hidden anything?’ ‘Yes. My father has high blood pressure. He wouldn’t be able to bear a single blow.’ ‘Then it might be wiser to tell, so they don’t hurt him.’ ‘But they’ll beat him all the same.’ ‘Well, then . . .’ ‘The gendarme says’, she whispered, bending close to my ear, ‘that if I go to bed with him he’ll save Daddy. I know your real name, Mr Hirschler. I’ve read things you’ve written . . . You could advise me.’ I wouldn’t have felt particularly guilty in this situation, in this hell, this synagogue of the wonder-rabbi, if I had advised the girl to give in to the gendarme. So many things had been lost since 19 March. There are really no bogus, high-flown sentiments left in me. I’m saying this as one who has lost not only all his belongings, but something very important, something vital: above all else, I have lost… Read more »
Tomi
Guest
The reburial of Miklós Horthy during the Antall government gave impetus to a reexamination of the Horthy regime, presumably in the hope that Horthy’s person and the whole period might be presented in a more favorable light. But it is hard to be sanguine about a twenty-five-year period that led to a lost war, incredible human and material suffering, the Holocaust, and an outright Nazi regime. I know it is very difficult for Hungarians to be objective, but this propaganda nonsense is below you. It is outright unprofessional. Here are a few facts that you conveniently forget in order to justify what you have been indoctrinated with in the USSR times: – Germany invaded Hungary in March 1944 – not long after a meeting between Horthy and Hitler in Klessheim. At the meeting, Horthy refused to commit to deporting large numbers of Hungarian Jews (back then it was called ‘contributing to the war efforts’). – In April 1944, Horthy was forced to appoint a new government, led by the Döme Sztójay, and was himself side-lined from significant influence. – the newly appointed Prime Minister, Döme Sztójay, committed 300,000 Hungarian Jews to ‘the German war efforts’. – Horthy did not expect… Read more »
An
Guest

@Tomi: Horthy and his role has been excessively discussed on this blog by Eva and many commenters. Eva had several detailed entries on Horthy himself. You may want to browse through them before arriving at hasty conclusions.

http://hungarianspectrum.org/?s=horthy

tappanch
Guest
@Tomi The devotion to the cause of the “final solution” of the Hungarian gendarmes surprised even Eichmann himself, who supervised the operation with only twenty officers and a staff of 100, which included drivers, cooks, etc. Rome was liberated on June 4, D-day landing in Normandy was on June 6. But on June 15, the Mayor of Budapest designated 2,000 (5%) “starred” houses where every Jew (20%+) had to move together. At the end of June, finally, the Pope in Rome, The King of Sweden, and, in strong terms, President Franklin D. Roosevelt urged the halt to the deportations. Admiral Horthy ordered the suspension of all deportations on July 6. By July 9, 437,402 Jews had been deported according to Reich plenipotentiary in Hungary Edmund Veesenmayer’s official German reports. One hundred and forty-seven trains were sent to Auschwitz, where 90% of the people were exterminated on arrival. The Sztójay government then rescheduled the date of deportation of the Jews of Budapest to Auschwitz to August 27. But the Romanians switched sides on August 23, 1944, causing huge problems for the German military, Himmler ordered the cancellation of further deportations from Hungary on August 25, and Horthy finally dismissed Prime Minister… Read more »
Cumi
Guest

Now that Jobbik is changing its image (not its substance, mind you) in order to look young, wholesome, cat-friendly and approachable some of its ardent supporters (who will surely vote) will have to think twice. For them it may be a better solution to vote for Fidesz after all. Fidesz will always have plenty of Horthy supporter to have the necessary right wing credentials.

Whether of not Horthy “saved” any Jewish Hungarians and what would have bee the case without him, he presided over a country that was dirt-poor (3 million beggars and Puszták Népe), fascist, discriminating in every way against minorities, women etc., uram-bátyám, anti-semitic etc. His completely undemocratic reign (he was essentially a self-appointed king without the name) cannot be evaluated as a positive form of government. It is ridiculous.

HappyHUUUU
Guest

Ridiculous, but Romsics, Orban, Vona, and many other idiotic Hungarians are in a delusional love with the bloodsucking Horthy, and his theatrical family, which could count on the support of a massive crowd of even more idiotic reactionary political servants.

The current lovers of Horthy, and indirectly Hitler, deserve this mad bloodsuckers in power in Budapest, too.

But why have the rest of decent Hungarians deserved this tragic orbanist/vonaist oppression?

Time for a self-liberating movement.

All the public has to do, to read the Hungarian Spectrum, or Karl Pfeifer’s memoirs, and deny legitimacy to the orbanists. Time for all, to reject the lies of the rezsi-csokkento regime.

Time for the liberation from the finkelstein/orban nightmare.

Ovidiu
Guest

“an echo of a gallows”

That was my first thought when I saw the picture.It may turn out to be an omen.

Karl Pfeifer
Guest

There is another angle to the story of István Bethlen, the shady affair of counterfeiting Francs
http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2495329?uid=3737528&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&sid=21102858550447

I wonder if the Orbán maffia will try to imitate Bethlen and let some of its key members counterfeit Euro or Dollar?

tappanch
Guest

Police exercise in Northern Pest today. Police can search people and their cars, frisk their clothing, body and confiscate things.

http://police.hu/hirek-es-informaciok/legfrissebb-hireink/kozrendvedelem/fokozott-ellenorzes-a-fovarosban-0

Police state run by mafiosi.

Guest

Ovidiu :
“an echo of a gallows”
That was my first thought when I saw the picture.It may turn out to be an omen.

I admit that it looked the same to me – and that frame is so wide that there’s room for several people, just like the Nazis did …

A few questions re Horthy’s and Bethlen’s reign:

When were those Jew laws introduced and by whom ?
I remember that not everybody was allowed to vote in Hungary in those times. Could someone point me to a source for this (in English of course)?

PS:

I find it really strange that this “reasoning” of Tomi appears regularly in Hungary:

Hungary wasn’t so bad – we sent to a certain death only two thirds of our Jews – the survivors should be thankful!
And anyway it wasn’t Horthy – it was the Arrow Cross. Weren’t these guys Hungarian too ?

Karl Pfeifer
Guest

@wolfi
A few questions re Horthy’s and Bethlen’s reign:
When were those Jew laws introduced and by whom ?
I remember that not everybody was allowed to vote in Hungary in those times. Could someone point me to a source for this (in English of course)?
PS:
I find it really strange that this “reasoning” of Tomi appears regularly in Hungary:
Hungary wasn’t so bad – we sent to a certain death only two thirds of our Jews – the survivors should be thankful!
And anyway it wasn’t Horthy – it was the Arrow Cross. Weren’t these guys Hungarian too ?

While under Bethlen money was counterfeited, under Orbán falsification of history became common.
It was under Horthy that (incl. the Hungarian occupied territory) more than half a million Hungarian citizens were deported by Hungarian Gendarms and Hungarian Policemen to Auschwitz-Birkenau.

Randolph Braham wrote the most comprehensive books about the Holocaust perpetrated by Germans and Hungarians,.There is also a good book by Götz Aly on subject matter in German language.

tappanch
Guest

@wolfi

anti-Jewish laws before the German occupation in 1944

numerus clausus September, 1920

1st [anti-]Jewish law: May 29, 1938

2nd [anti-]Jewish law: May 5, 1939
defined Jews racially: people with 2, 3 or 4 Jewish-born grandparents were declared Jewish.

Before the second Jewish law, about 31% of the Jewish population of Borsod county (Miskolc excluded), 2496 people had the right to vote. At the next elections, less than a month after this new anti-Jewish legislation, only 38 privileged Jews could vote.

2nd [anti-]Jewish law: August 8, 1941
prohibited intermarriage and penalized sexual intercourse between Jews and non-Jews.

tappanch
Guest
May 17, 1923 The London house of Rothschilds and the Paris representatives of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. of New York, are bitterly and indignantly assailed by the WIENER MORGENZEITUNG for what the paper regards as excessive cordiality shown towards the plenipotentiaries of the Horthy regime, who are negotiating a loan in European capitals. Count Bethlen, the Hungarian Premier, and M. Kallay, the Finance Minister have been spending some time in Paris, London and Rome in the hope of floating a Hungarian loan. “The representatives of the London Rothschilds and the Paris representatives of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. have not only discussed the loan but also invited to their home for lunch and dinner representatives of the Horthy terror, the initiator of Numerus Clausus and other repressions against Jews”, the LORGENZEITUNG asserts. In connection with this it recalls that a proposed loan by Czarist Russia was refused by Jewish bankers, in the absence of suitable guarantees of a betterment in the treatment of the Jew in Russia. This time the Jewish bankers evidently asked for nothing more than the privilege of participating in the loan, this journal charges, while it says it learns that prior to his departure Premier Bethlen prevailed… Read more »
Karl Pfeifer
Guest

@ wolfi
the numerus clausus law discriminating against Jews and “Jews” was introduced in 1920
In English a very good volume you can download
http://mek.oszk.hu/11100/11109/11109.pdf

Starting from 1938 (zsidotörvények) laws discriminating Jews were introduced. One racial law was more strict than the Nuremberg law of 1935.

tappanch
Guest

August 24, 1923

At the meeting of the Hungarian Chamber last week, the Socialist Deputy Karl Peyer introduced a motion for the withdrawal of the numerus clausus.

Count Kuno Klebelsberg, the Minister for Education opposed the motion. The numerus clausus, he said, could not be withdrawn until the detached parts of Hungary were restored to her.

The Government Party voted against Deputy Peyer’s motion, which was defeated by an overwhelming majority.

http://www.jta.org/1923/08/24/archive/hungary-retains-numerus-clausus

Tomi
Guest
wolfi :I find it really strange that this “reasoning” of Tomi appears regularly in Hungary: Hungary wasn’t so bad – we sent to a certain death only two thirds of our Jews – the survivors should be thankful! And anyway it wasn’t Horthy – it was the Arrow Cross. Weren’t these guys Hungarian too ? I find it interesting that every time anybody comes with a small peep against considering all Hungarians as a Tätervolk for all eternity then you and your likes come out and cry apologist Neo-Nazi! If you were willing to treat everybody as your equal, then we might be able to move on with some sort of truth and reconziliation. But, that cannot happen based on propaganda and self-righteousness. Wolfi sounds a bit like you could be coming from another Tätervolk. Then, why is is that we can move on with Germans by accepting that not all Germans were Nazis, that too many people looked the other way, and that the shame/blame belonging to the Germans of that time is not genetic and therefore has not automatically been passed on to new generations of Germans? The Hungarian right-wing is not all Hungarians, so why should we… Read more »
tappanch
Guest
November 6, 1939 The Hungarian authorities have introduced a so-called policy of “complete Sabbath for the entire week” for the Jews by depriving practically the entire Jewish population of the right to work and make a living. Taking advantage of the world’s preoccupation with the war, which makes attention to the Jewish question in Hungary unlikely, the Government is pursuing its anti-Jewish policy ruthlessly and is pushing the Jews out of all economic positions and employment. This correspondent found the Jewish situation in Budapest much worse than it was a few months ago when he visited here. The official anti-Semitism embodied in the so-called “Jewish law” is being carried out at a much faster tempo than was even foreseen in the law. Despite the fact that under the “Jewish law,” Jews are supposed to be dismissed from commercial, industrial and other enterprises gradually, over a period of several years, there are already many enterprises which are “Judenrein” (free of Jews) because the authorities have indicated that no trade licenses will be issued for the year 1940 to firms which have Jews in their employment. In view of this threat all restaurants, even those owned by Jews, are now dismissing all… Read more »
Karl Pfeifer
Guest

@Tomi
I find it interesting that every time anybody comes with a small peep against considering all Hungarians as a Tätervolk for all eternity then you and your likes come out and cry apologist Neo-Nazi! If you were willing to treat everybody as your equal, then we might be able to move on with some sort of truth and reconziliation. But, that cannot happen based on propaganda and self-righteousness.

Tomi could you give us just one example how Éva Balogh on this blog considers “all Hungarians as a Tätervolk for all eternity”?

tappanch
Guest

December 18, 1940

Over 500,000 acres of agricultural land in Hungary will pass from Jewish hands, under the law providing that Jews can no longer hold agricultural properties, Count Michael Teleki, Minister of Agriculture, has announced in Parliament.

The minister declared that some 130,000 acres of Jewish land had been expropriated from the Jews up to the end of July. Certain formalities, the minister added, make difficult the further transfer of Jewish agricultural possessions into non-Jewish hands, but these difficulties will be overcome by provisions of the projected “third Jewish law,” promulgation of which is expected shortly.

http://www.jta.org/1940/12/18/archive/half-million-acres-of-jewish-owned-land-to-be-transferred

tappanch
Guest

January 19, 1944

Premier Nicholas von Kallay of Hungary, addressing the Hungarian Parliament, announced that 1,000,000 yokes of Jewish land in Hungary have been confiscated under the anti-Jewish laws, the Budapest newspapers reaching are today report.

In making this announcement, the Hungarian Premier emphasized that he personality assumes the full responsibility for taking the land away from the Jews. “In connection with the Jewish estates, may I mention that the campaign was solely my work,” on Kallay is quoted as having declared.

http://www.jta.org/1944/01/19/archive/1000000-yokes-jewish-land-confiscated-in-hungary-premier-claims-credit-for-it

slambert
Guest

One wonders about the state-of-mind of a name-caller. . . Tomi can come up with many excuses for Horthy–German “invasion” (where was the resistance?), ignorance, Nazi threats, the kidnapping of Miklós Jr. But at the end of the day, one cannot avoid concluding that he was in charge of Hungary during the deportation of Jews to Auschwitz and therefore bears responsibility for the Holocaust. As for HappyHuuu’s comment about Romsics as an “idiotic Hungarian” who is in love with the “bloodsucking Horthy”: this is simply untrue. I know Romsics very well, and he certainly has no love for Horthy and is also very aware of Bethlen’s weaknesses as a leader. To place him in the same category as Orbán and Vona reflects total ignorance of his work and opinions.

Tomi
Guest

Karl Pfeifer :
@Tomi
I find it interesting that every time anybody comes with a small peep against considering all Hungarians as a Tätervolk for all eternity then you and your likes come out and cry apologist Neo-Nazi! If you were willing to treat everybody as your equal, then we might be able to move on with some sort of truth and reconziliation. But, that cannot happen based on propaganda and self-righteousness.
Tomi could you give us just one example how Éva Balogh on this blog considers “all Hungarians as a Tätervolk for all eternity”?

No I cannot. My comment was to the comment of Wolfi, who commented on my comment on Eva’s blog entry.

Tomi
Guest
Eva S. Balogh : I simply don’t understand Tomi’s outburst. I wrote: “. . . it is hard to be sanguine about a twenty-five-year period that led to a lost war, incredible human and material suffering, the Holocaust, and an outright Nazi regime.” Wasn’t that the case? Did it end happily? No, it did not end happily. In general, I find your blog interesting and balanced, but sometimes you are as populistic as Orban. This is one such case. I do not like when people promote Horthy as the largest Nazi Hungarian, because it is stupid and factually wrong. It is something that belongs to the silly propaganda machinery of the left wing and should be beneath you. You clearly promote the left wing stance that it is not politically correct to discuss Horthy unless he is blamed for everthing that went wrong. That is not democratic behavior, that is bullying. If we cannot have a matter of fact discussion and if some of us are not allowed to hold opinions that do not conform with the mainstream propaganda, then we can never move forward and we will repeat history, because one cannot learn from history without being able to… Read more »
Tomi
Guest
slambert : One wonders about the state-of-mind of a name-caller. . . Tomi can come up with many excuses for Horthy–German “invasion” … But at the end of the day, one cannot avoid concluding that he was in charge of Hungary during the deportation of Jews to Auschwitz and therefore bears responsibility for the Holocaust.… Thank you for calling me an apologist Neo-Nazi, you simple-minded prick! As everything else in Hungary, nothing is easy or clear cut. What makes that era very interesting is that nothing is what it seems. Every time you think you have figured something out, more questions and other POVs are discovered. For a large part of the so-called Horthy Era, Horthy was a powerfull ‘President’ with ability to control the Prime Minister and the Parliament based on political connections and great political skills. I Hungary today, the table is turned and the President is pretty much just the sock puppet of the Prime Minister. Up through the 30s, Horthy was the ‘king of Hungary’ with a lot of politcal clout and influence on almost everything politically. From the beginning of WWII, Horthy had to be increasingly carefull not to loose control and he had to… Read more »
Guest

@tomi:

Fidesz is erecting Horthy statues – that’s the (start of) the problem …

While in Germany everybody’s involvement in the Nazi Regime is discussed – so some people like Theodor Eschenburg e g suddenly appear in a different light:
http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodor_Eschenburg
Sorry, but there’s not much in English about him. He was a conservative and a more or less wiling accomplice of the Nazis – just like Horthy.

Karl Pfeifer
Guest

Tomi of course you can hold any opinion you want. But here it is expected not to insinuate that somebody described “Horthy as the largest Nazi Hungarian”
The way you discuss reminds me of the old stalinist method of discussion. First you put something into the mouth of your opponent, what he did not say in order to win an argument.
The fact, that under Horthy the Hungarian administration deported with zeal (incl. the Hungarian occupied territory) more than halt a million Hungarian citizens to Auschwitz-Birkenau cannot be denied. Or do you deny that?
So you start a story about leftwing etc.believing really, that all the Historians who wrote about that subject matter are leftwingers, which is in your eyes something pejorative.
And Tomi your are one brochure behind. Antal Rogán critizised the putting up of a Horthy bust by the Hungarian nazi in a church.

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