The Hungarian Holocaust Year and the reaction of Jewish organizations

Let me start with a disclaimer. In a comment I gave details of the negotiations currently underway among the politicians of MSZP, Együtt-14, and DK. I should have been more circumspect because the information came from Heti Válasz. Although it is the least objectionable of the pro-government publications, that doesn’t mean that one ought to believe everything that appears in it. Heti Válasz claimed to know that MSZP will have 66 districts while E-14 and DK will have 20 districts each. The paper reported that the list will be headed by Attila Mesterházy to be followed by Gordon Bajnai, Ferenc Gyurcsány, and someone from PM. Well, it turns out that although the negotiations are proceeding well, the participants are far from a final agreement.

Berlin postcard 1938 issued to commemorate the meeting between Hitler and Horthy

Berlin postcard 1938, issued to commemorate the meeting between Hitler and Horthy

And now to today’s topic. As all active readers know, my post on the events of 1944 created an incredible number of comments. I wrote in response to the government’s idea of erecting a monument to Hungary’s “occupation” by German forces. My summary was largely based on the final chapter of Krisztián Ungváry’s latest book, The Balance Sheet of the Horthy Regime: Discrimination, Social Policy and anti-Semitism in Hungary, which in turn relies on the cumulative research of German, American, and Hungarian scholars. Since it is a very recent publication, Ungváry incorporated the latest findings about the circumstances of this so-called occupation, which surely can’t be called an occupation in the accepted meaning of the word. It, in fact, could better be described as a troop movement within the territories of military allies.

Since the beginning of the year the controversy swirling around the erection of such a monument has been steadily growing in Hungary and abroad. It is not at all surprising, therefore, that Krisztián Ungváry decided to voice his opinion on the subject. Some people thought that the announcement of the erection of a monument was a joke, and accordingly Ungváry starts his article with a witticism of General Maximilian von Weichs, the general of the German forces sent to Hungary in 1944. When he was asked about the time it will take to occupy the whole country Weichs answered: twenty-four hours. And if there is resistance? Weichs’ answer was: only twelve hours because in that case there will not be so many welcoming speeches from Hungarian officials. Weichs felt that his stay in Hungary was unnecessary. His soldiers had nothing to do, and he personally spent his time going to parties, wine tastings, and the opera.

Ungváry makes no bones about the Orbán government’s duplicitous public relations campaign when it comes to Hungary’s role in the Holocaust. On the one hand, Ministers Tibor Navracsics and János Martonyi can admit Hungary’s share of responsibility in the events of 1944, but this is a message intended for foreign consumption. At home the government, by erecting a memorial to the German “occupation,” refuses to acknowledge any share of the blame. Some of the pro-government “historians” go even further and claim that, with the active help of Miklós Horthy, “300,000 Hungarian Jews were hidden, fed, and saved in Budapest.”

I think the erection of a monument was the last straw even for Mazsihisz (Magyarországi Zsidó Hitközségek Szövetsége), which has been watching with growing suspicion the government’s efforts to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the Hungarian Holocaust. Mazsihisz is an organization that represents only the Jewish religious communities, which is a very small group in comparison to those who consider themselves Jewish but have no religious affiliation. Mazsihisz also depends to a large degree on the goodwill of the Hungarian government, and therefore its leaders tread lightly. However, last year there was a shakeup in Mazsihisz, and it seems that the new leadership is taking a more activist role in defense of Jewish interests.

In charge of both the new House of Fates and the memorial is János Lázár. Lázár instructed Antal Rogán, mayor of District V where the memorial will stand, to make the necessary arrangements for a “building permit.” The new president of Mazsihisz, András Heisler, wrote a letter to Rogán in which he expressed his misgivings about the project. The letter interpreted the erection of such a monument as a “grievous and sad message” which worries both the Hungarian and the international Jewry. The letter specifically asked the authorities to abandon the idea of such a monument.

Heisler is afraid that if the monument actually materializes there will be “an international scandal” which he would like to prevent. Mazsihisz also has problems with the House of Fates. At the beginning of December they wrote a letter to Mária Schmidt in which they listed the names of twenty experts whose presence would ensure the historical accuracy of the planned exhibit. They asked her to pick five. Now, more than a month later, there is still no word from Schmidt. Moreover, Heisler knows nothing more about the monument than he did when he read news of it on January 1. In brief, all the plans for the Holocaust year are proceeding without any input whatsoever from the official Hungarian Jewish organizations. A few days ago Mazsihisz decided to write to János Lázár himself. As yet they have received no answer from him either.

So, this is where we stand. I agree with András Heisler. The falsification of history is proceeding apace on all fronts, but the Holocaust is an especially sensitive subject as far as the Orbán government is concerned. On the one hand, the government wants to look like a responsible trustee of the memory of close to 500,000 victims and therefore organizes a whole series of events commemorating the Holocaust’s 70th anniversary. At the same time it is busily rehabilitating the same Miklós Horthy who bore a major responsibility for the fate of those Jews deported to Germany. The monument to the German “occupation” is especially egregious. With its erection, the present government would be giving material form to its sanitized history of the country, in particular the absolution of Hungarian governments of the interwar period and the Hungarian authorities of seventy years ago of any responsibility for the fate of Hungarian Jews. It is a shame, and I hope that the Orbán government will abandon the whole idea.

 
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tinshed (@tinshed)
Guest

There is a measured and objective article on the new Holocaust Memorial which reinforces many of the points made here. Well worth reading. http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-news-and-politics/157693/budapest-holocaust-museum

Steve
Guest

“Some of the pro-government “historians” go even further and claim that, with the active help of Miklós Horthy, 300,000 Hungarian Jews were hidden, fed, and saved in Budapest.”
If that would be correct who would have inhabited in 1944 the Main or International Ghettoes, nobody would have been shot into the Danube and the march towards Vienna would have had no Jewish participants since there were not more than 200-220 thousand Jews in October 1944 in Budapest, the rest were either in labour service or dead. What wonderfully inventive people we have in today’s Hungary, if instead of falsifying history they would concentrate on something like cars or computers, Hungary would be the bestest in the World in no time.

tappanch
Guest

I would like to make a little correction. MaZsiHiSz is the organization of the Neolog denomination. It is notable that the second largest denomination, EMIH, the Hungarian branch of Chabad has been silent.

They seem to subscribe to the New Testament adage:

“Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar’s; and unto God the things that are God’s”.

know know know
Guest

How did Hungary deserve this insane government?

Before erecting this fake memorial, all Hungarians could read Akos Kertesz, Imre Kertesz, and Gyorgy Konrad,,,,and Eva Balogh.

So far, I am afraid, ignorance rules Hungary. Too many thugs are dreaming of destroying Jewish cemeteries, synagogues, and hurting living Jewish men and women.

What a revolting mess.

tappanch
Guest

The media-savvy rabbi of the Hungarian Chabad explained his stance in “Élet és Irodalom” in 2012:

“Why don’t we have to do anything with Horthy?”

“I ask the members of my community not to protest”

A copy of the article can be found at
http://judaizmus.blogspot.hu/2012/06/koves-slomo-rabbi-miert-nincs-dolgunk.html

Istvan
Guest
Krisztián Ungváry in his earlier book on the Battle for Budapest describes in some detail the attempts of the Arrow Cross to shoot down as many Jews as possible. These murders were not Germans and in fact the German military several times intervened to stop Arrow Cross men from dragging out Jews to be shot from the Ghetto. In order to not be accused of in anyway claiming that the Germans were protectors of the Jews in Budapest it has to be stated that both Eichmann and Himmler attempted to sell Jews or bargain with them near the end of the war and as we all know the Nazis killed as many Hungarian Jews as they could possibly do in the death camps. So German attempts to stop some Arrow Cross exterminations has to be seen in that context. The entire idea of as Eva has said of erecting a memorial to the German “occupation,” refuses to acknowledge any share of the blame on the part on Hungarians. As I have indicated before there were members of the Chicago Hungarian community who were members of the 25th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Hunyadi (1st Hungarian). The story they told… Read more »
Minusio
Guest

“… the fate of those Jews deported to Germany…”

I know that my girlfriends father (now 100 years old) was deported to Mauthausen (a labour camp in Austria, then part of Germany) and almost died. But the largest number of Jewish Hungarians were sent by railway cattle cars directly to Birkenwald-Auschwitz in Poland (under German occupation) where most of them were murdered on arrival as far as I know.

In addition, Hitler demanded from Horthy Jewish workers for his armament production in Germany. Tens of thousands were indeed deported to German arms production plants shortly before the Russians “liberated” Hungary. But in proportion I think their number was relatively small. What happened to them?

From the phrasing it sounds as if Horthy was only responsible for the latter group, but I doubt from the former discussions that this was so.

Steve Colman
Guest

Horthy and the Jews are just one aspect of Hungary between 1918 and 1945. That Horthy was involved with the Jews during his regime is obvious and that he influenced the anti-Jewish rules and laws cannot be doubted, but it is a fact that after the 1919 disasterous Kommune there was a period when the population’s life improved, industries developed and employed more as well as agriculture and exports. (Never mind that Jews might have been involved in Industry and Banking, as complained by a certain Admiral.) Even ‘though there was no political freedom it was a controlled “democracy”. But never since WWI was it a pleasure to be a Jew in Hungary, finishing up with increasingly more restrictive conditions. The present pro-Horthy debates and whitewashing efforts of the existing rulers and Jobbik, who were voted in by the Hungarians are just a sign of the long established anti-Semitic feelings of the Hungarian Nation. There are not a lot of steps between Tiszaeszlar and the proposed memorial on Szabadsag?ter.

Andy - LISTEN ! Hungary becomes minced meat
Guest
Duplicity, lies, inability to critically see the self, belittleing their enemies, hungry for the meat, character assasinations, mock trials, tacit permission of assasinations. Seems familiar? Rings a bell? Get a sickening, eerie feeling? In one of my comments not so long ago I discussed that there is a culture of character assasination in Hungary. Since generations. The re-writing of history with an aim of creating a different impression than which historical facts underlie is in a symbiotic relationship with the mischaracterisation and falsification of history. The two, namely character assasination and the re-writing of history) go hand-in-hand. Orban’s gang, the rebirth of the Horthy clan, the sizophrenic view of Germany of the World War II era and that of the Horthy government’s role are part of Orban’s efforts at obuscating history in order to create a mental instability within which people lose their sense of right and wrong. By this means Orban can create a putrid and fertile land to sow more garbage onto an earth where the average person will no longer be able to see straight because of the nauseating stench created by those whose interest is to create mayhem. The only element the Orbanists have left out… Read more »
Tref
Guest
Chabad and Tett és Védelem (a civil organization close to Chabad) support Fidesz. That is a fact. They don’t care about the Holocaust that much, they think that they lived through Egypt, the stetl, then they will live through Fidesz as well. More importantly though, Chabad is socially conservative (very, to Western secular standards) so there is a lot of common ground with Fidesz. In addition, Mazsihisz is thought of as a communist nest by Fidesz (since it was set up in those times) and Chabad is fiercly fighting Mazsihisz on religious grounds. Having a common enemy with Fidesz (since Fidesz tries to elmininate all problematic power constituencies everywhere, with varying intensity) is helpful. Note also that the tábori rabbi, a state position within the army, a kind of top rabbi position within the army (not that it would mean anything in practice, obviously) is Slomo Köves himself from Chabad (Fidesz appointed him, thereby elevating his stature within the Jewish community). So, all in all, given that the interests are aligned, both Fidesz and Chabad wants to do away with Mazsihisz (at least by waging a war of attrition, making Mazsihisz less and less relevant), Chabad and Tett és Védelem… Read more »
petofi
Guest
Andy – LISTEN ! Hungary becomes minced meat : Duplicity, lies, inability to critically see the self, belittleing their enemies, hungry for the meat, character assasinations, mock trials, tacit permission of assasinations. Seems familiar? Rings a bell? Get a sickening, eerie feeling? In one of my comments not so long ago I discussed that there is a culture of character assasination in Hungary. Since generations. The re-writing of history with an aim of creating a different impression than which historical facts underlie is in a symbiotic relationship with the mischaracterisation and falsification of history. The two, namely character assasination and the re-writing of history) go hand-in-hand. Orban’s gang, the rebirth of the Horthy clan, the sizophrenic view of Germany of the World War II era and that of the Horthy government’s role are part of Orban’s efforts at obuscating history in order to create a mental instability within which people lose their sense of right and wrong. By this means Orban can create a putrid and fertile land to sow more garbage onto an earth where the average person will no longer be able to see straight because of the nauseating stench created by those whose interest is to create… Read more »
CarlosD
Guest

Agreed…a much better monument would be to the great Jewish-Hungarians who contributed to arts, culture and science. Leo Szilard, Elie Wiesel, Andre Kertesz….the list is long and impressive. Too bad the current government of Hungary can’t take pride in those figures instead of Horthy and his cohorts.

tinshed (@tinshed)
Guest
CarlosD : Agreed…a much better monument would be to the great Jewish-Hungarians who contributed to arts, culture and science. Leo Szilard, Elie Wiesel, Andre Kertesz….the list is long and impressive. Too bad the current government of Hungary can’t take pride in those figures instead of Horthy and his cohorts. I think the Nora Berend article that was translated here a few days ago is much more perceptive and subtle that I first thought. The issue in Hungary is the anti-Semitic question. When I think about the anti-Semitism in Hungary is indeed the problem. It has done enormous and irreparable damage to Hungary and Hungarians. We need to think only of the Holocaust. But the damage is much more widespread and pervasive than that. Jewish-Hungarians have been forced to leave their homeland throughout the 20th century yet they have contributed so much to Hungary and Hungarian culture. Just imagine if Jewish-Hungarians had felt safe enough to stay and continue to contribute to Hungarians arts, culture and society. How much richer would Hungary be! But instead anti-Semitism forced them away, to leave their beloved homeland, simply to survive. It is anti-Semitism and its supporters who need to be held to account for… Read more »
Guest

@tinshed:

This is also something I find really strange. I read somewhere that a few weeks ago Orbán praised the “Hungarian geniuses” of von Neumann, Biro etc without realising that all these people had been forced to leave the country …

Of course the situation of my homeland Germany is similar in a way – German science has not the same position as up to 1930, when most Jews left and some loonies promoted “German physics” against Einstein etc …

Andy -- Scapegoatism - alteration of DNA
Guest
Follwing up comments 13-Carlos, 14-tinshed and 15-wolfi, there is a favorable new topic discussed in a recdnt article the highly respected journal ‘Science’ in this regards – that is, the potential ability to keep the human mind more malleable after the pre-age 7 years I am referring to the deep-seated scapegoating, that is, for example the recurring anti-semitic bias in segments of societies. I can only provide a very scetchy version of the information and deduce inferences. The Science article describes something to the effect that tests have been done on mice to observe genes that change after a young age to a less malleable, less perceptive and less flexible alternative behavior model. I think the article has to do with the young persons ability to be accepting to new impulses and infomation. The article talks about injecting such DNA to prolong this period of receptiveness. If scapegoating is a phenomenon that comes into being after, say age 5, then maybe we can prolong the early unadulterated behavior model into adults… As you see my description is very sketchy – and it leaves it to the reader to do his/her research into this material and phenomenon. And I leave it… Read more »
Guest

Well, Andy, injecting DNA?

A bit OT:

Maybe I was lucky – I lost all faith in religion at the ge of six when I heard that I couldn’t go to school with my friends – they went to Catholic school and I to the Protestant school, which was situated in the same old schoolhouse! They just had built a wall in the middle …

Even several years later at the gymnasium I and some friends had a heated discussion about this nonsense with our school director, who insisted it was better to have two primary schools (with 3 respectively 5 classes for 8 years of pupils!) because of religion – WTF!

That was in Germany in the 1950s – a horrible time with religion playing a much too prominent role. The good side of that was:

It made most of us into revolutionaries and paved the way for the 1968 upheavals!

That’s something that Hungarian youths seem to have missed.

Kutas
Guest

Wolfi, oh, 1968, how much Orban and his Magyar Kronika top 100 right-wing smartasses hate 1968…

Istvan
Guest
I honestly believe many of the comments relating to Hungarian antisemitism see our culture as unique in relation to that issue. Because Chicago is a melting pot of Central European peoples I see much of the same forms of denial amongst Ukrainians, Poles, and Romanians. Chicago during the 1950s was a hotbed of anti-communist organizing for Eastern Europeans and some of the leaders of the anti-communist movement here were former SS and fascists. To be honest psychologically it is easier to try to find something positive about the Horthy regime than to look at the reality of it objectively. Goldhagen’s book “Hittler’s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust” for Germans really dove deeply into the collective responsibility for the mass murder of Jews, other racial minorities, and the disabled in Nazi Germany. That book got the children of many WWII Germans enraged, because in so many ways these children were lied to about the actual fascist ties of family members. Because I actually grew up with families with such deep and dark pasts I have come to believe that the oppression of the Communist regimes were a god send for these historic fascists, it allowed them the avoid coming… Read more »
Joe Simon
Guest

CarlosD :
“Agreed…a much better monument would be to the great Jewish-Hungarians who contributed to arts, culture and science. Leo Szilard, Elie Wiesel, Andre Kertesz….the list is long and impressive. Too bad the current government of Hungary can’t take pride in those figures”

ALL THREE NAMES AND MORE ARE INDEED LISTED ON THE FACADE OF THE TUDOMÁNYOK PALOTÁJA IN BUDA AT THE NAGY IMRE SQUARE.

Also, I listened to an interview by Agnes Heller on YouTube. She said many Jews return to Hungary even from Israel as they find the country hospitable.

csaba gergely
Guest
OT: Nepszabadsag, the ailing left-leaning daily is used by Fidesz brilliantly (link below). Somehow it is Nepszabadsag which is able to get insider info from the otherwise paranoid and secretive Fidesz-governmen). Man, what suckers these journalists are. But they have no choice, Nepszabadsag may be closed down at any time (or be sold to Simicska or his front men), so I guess the editors cannot be too critical (especially if they get something in return, which is difficult to refuse when you are about to lose your job in a market where even the most die-hard Fideszniks have difficulty to get media jobs). According to really reliable sources, because if someone from Fidesz says it, then it must be true, we must accept it, Fidesz, should it win the elections will be very moderate, will be less activist and will make gestures towards otherwise unloved constituencies. Also, Fidesz just does not think it could again have 2/3s. No. So no worries, folks, you leftist voters don’t have to go to vote if they don’t feel like to, Fidesz will not get 2/3s, so no problem, Fidesz will not be all-powerful, for sure, and Orban will be much friendlier, so no… Read more »
Year of Illness 2014
Guest

FIDESZ has created a national problem, but Jobbik is working on a national catastrophic explosion: http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-news-and-politics/96716/meet-europes-new-fascists

Hungary has got a neat collections of problems: antisemitism, anticommunism, antiliberalism. A distorted and dishonest rewriting of past events is never the good cure.

The fiver is high, and the patient is too poor to pay for the right medical care..

JGrant
Guest
wolfi : It made most of us into revolutionaries and paved the way for the 1968 upheavals! That’s something that Hungarian youths seem to have missed. As one revolutionary to another I must say I find your comment above exceptionally perceptive. Except that you presumably meant your generation and I have an interesting story about the current 20 and 30-somethings. My younger son lives in Canada and is an active Marxist. Even when on holiday he is very perceptive about the state of the countries he visits, re: the general mood and obvious signs of politics, culture etc. He and his family visited us last summer and towards the end of their stay he took his wife to a “romkocsma” (ruin pub) for the evening. They had a brilliant time, enjoyed the youthful atmosphere, the interesting decor of junk furniture etc., but he made the following comment: “You know what surprised me? – he asked me. What?- I answered. The total lack of politics on the walls. No posters, no graffiti, nothing. And the fact that the main slogan in the bar was “Have another beer!” We all had a good laugh, but his reasoning was very interesting. He told… Read more »
Guest

@JGrant:

Interesting, and I also feel that “opposition” among the young here is different, not as “revolutionary” as in Western Europe. But there is opposition and a different outlook, at least among some of the younger people.

For example I was really surprised when my wife’s younger son (he’s over 30 btw) told me that among his and his wife’s favourite internet sites are reddit and – Jon Stewart! So they are informed about what goes on in the world outside – and of course they know all those Hungarian scandals where the Fidesz mafia is involved: Közgép, the businesses of Orbán’s father and his wife’s winery etc …

But they have to work hard to just make a living (without our support they wouldn’t even have thought about having children) and have no time to protest on the streets.

Andy -- ship Ahoy!
Guest
@JGrant and @wolfi: As a fellow rebel of the 1960s I’ll add that the cause of the absence of ideological symbols or logic here is mainly due to the mayhem of confusing ideologies present within the Hungarian ideological atmoshpere. To the post-communist generation living here the world must seem like that ball of string or wool to a cat i.e. the “gordiuszi csomó”, which is the local expression for the undecipherable message or the untiable knot. What with the slew of options offered by the older local generations who are most often unclear themselves of the differences, I too would be hard put to know where to find the reliable structural pillars. By fate and by extension this is most likely the phenomenon reposnible for even Orban’s odd behavior and mixture of ill-fitting ideologioes that are currently steering the country with the masses hanging on for dear life. This boat, likely for this simple but not as evident reason has lost a reliable steering mechanism as well as a reliable captain, leading to likely fateful collision or accident. A boat that could evidently capsize. All because no competent person has been allowed to get to the helm and because the… Read more »
Andy -- send in a team to repair the RUDDER
Guest
To wrap up my previous comment “Andy – ship Ahoy”, there is an eerie connection between the lack of critical focus of the Hungarian population and the Hungarian unprincipled political and economic debacle. Positive changes can only be built on solid intellectual foundations. Not having these foundations, the changes will appear ‘ad hoc’ and canot be solid or long-lasting. The EU would do well to note the absence of solid ethical foundations in some post-communist societies. Just as “reverse discrimination” had beneficial results in bringing change to formerly accepted thinking in the USA, a new era of education in the former Communist States — of ethics, politics, Western economic principles, logic of globalisation, concepts of social capitalism within democracy — need to be taught. Also the areas of potential misunderstandings neeed to be explained to as wide a swarth of the population as possible. This may appear like ‘brainwashing’ in the former Soviets system. Not so, however. This serves as corrective clarification of fundamental principles that were mis-taught previously. If you, dear reader, believe in the current Western system as being more efficient and more human, this step of reeducation is a ‘sine quoi non’. Message to the EU +… Read more »
Mo tragediaja
Guest

The saying that “those who don’t learn from the past are doomed to repeat it” has never been truer than it is in revisionist Hungary today. But, Hungarians don’t want to learn from the past, they want what they had yesterday. If it was not for the Hungarian Jews, who consistently have had their head in the sand, I would say leave them to what they want.
As it is, the only hope for decent Hungarians is the complete ostracism of this government by the world community. Those who like what they have today will soon change direction, as they have done si in the past, when their everyday life was affected by the action of their leaders. As capital has fled and banks are unable to function, it is only a matter of time before the population will revolt. Shame, shame, shame!

Tibike
Guest

Mo: Hungarians as well as many Germans would have voted for Arrow-cross/Nazis, respectively, even after the war, even after the utter devastation (if they could). War, ostracism, revolt, have nothing to do with it. People are socially conservative and want to take away the wealth of others, they being poor — it is such a logical combination in our age, that no disaster is too big for such voters. Dont’t expect that the right wing will go away anytime soon in Hungary.

black holes
Guest

The Tragedy of Madach can not happen in Hungary.
Too many Hungarians are in the dark of the national past.
Deak enlightened Hungary for a short time.
After him, the darkness just became darker.
Hungary, unfortunately, is a black hole again.
All attempts to lighten it up, has been failed.

gdfxx
Guest

wolfi :
@JGrant:
… I was really surprised when my wife’s younger son (he’s over 30 btw) told me that among his and his wife’s favourite internet sites are reddit and – Jon Stewart! So they are informed about what goes on in the world outside …

I don’t know much about reddit (although I looked at their website and the headline on the top of the page was “Little girl and alpaca turned into cartoon.”) but Jon Stewart is a comedian who has a pseudo-news nightly comedy show (on the Comedy Channel). If someone gets his/her news from it, that person is not informed about what goes on in the world (from a reliable, objective news source)

Lumpy Lang
Guest

Anti-Semitism has always served as the hegemonic ideology of the Hungarian capitalist class; especially since 1989 it has been a close handmaiden of nationalism in the restoration of “capitalism without capital.” In this respect Hungary is only an extreme example of a larger international retrogression of consciousness in which the bourgeoisie attacks what is historically progressive within its own ideological foundations in the French Revolution, the American Civil War, etc.

For the working class anti-Semitism is and remains, in August Bebel’s deathless phrase, “the socialism of fools.”

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