The Orbán government’s war on multiple fronts

It looks as if there is a good possibility that the Orbán government will go through with its plans to erect a monument in memory of the German “occupation” of Hungary which, according to the new constitution’s preamble, put an end to Hungarian sovereignty for almost half a century. I’m sure that by now all readers of Hungarian Spectrum are aware of the significance of this monument. I also hope that most people who are even slightly familiar with the history of Hungary in the twentieth century perfectly understand that this monument, if erected, will be the embodiment of Hungary’s claim to total innocence in the Holocaust. This attempt at rewriting history has unfortunate ramifications for the way Hungarian society will look at the past and their own place in it. This monument, if Viktor Orbán’s plans become reality, will put a stamp of approval on the government-led falsification of history.

The planned monument has already raised concerns and objections, and yet Viktor Orbán refuses to reconsider. Why is this monument so important to Fidesz and the present right-wing government? Why are they ready to alienate important groups at home and abroad for the sake of this hideous monument? Why did they announce their decision so late? Why the hurry?

I would like to offer a couple of thoughts for consideration. The first is that, in my opinion, preparations for the reinterpretation of the history of Hungary between the two world wars has been in the works for a long period of time. Since way before 2010. Moreover, I’m sure that it was systematically worked out with one overarching thing in mind: to take away the odium of the Holocaust from the Hungarians. I know that a lot of people think that the script for a revisionist history was written only recently in order to compete with Jobbik, whose votes Fidesz needs at the next election. But the text of the constitution’s preamble belies this theory. Viktor Orbán promised great changes in every facet of life in 2010. Why should history be any different? In fact, changing society’s historical consciousness should be practically a prerequisite of all other changes.

It was maybe yesterday that Szabolcs Kerék-Bárczy, formerly of MDF and today a DK candidate in the first electoral district of Budapest, pointed out that by now he thinks that Viktor Orbán and his friends aren’t just trying to please their friends in Jobbik but actually believe that changes in historical interpretation are warranted. Reporter Olga Kálmán loudly protested, as is customary in Hungarian liberal circles. I tend to side with Kerék-Bárczy. I think that setting up the “Veritas” Institute under the direction of a former MIÉP now Jobbik supporter is more than politics. It comes from deep conviction.

I will make available a few documents here. First, a protest of twenty-three historians that was published this morning on Galamus. 

* * *

The protest of the Hungarian historians against the planned German Occupation Memorial

We hereby protest against the plan to erect a memorial in central Budapest to the German occupation of 1944. The memorial falsifies an important period of our history, and relativizes the Holocaust in Hungary.

According to the description of the memorial, which has recently been made public, the memorial will be built “in the memory of all the victims.” Since, however, this memorial is based on a falsified version of history, it cannot fulfill its purpose. By presenting both the victims and perpetrators of the Holocaust together as the sole victim of the Germans, the planned memorial dishonours the memory of those half a million victims who were killed in the Holocaust in Hungary. 

The Hungarian Holocaust took place with the active participation of the Hungarian authorities. But the planned memorial places all responsibility solely with the Germans and the German army’s “Arrow Cross subordinates.” In truth, the Arrow Cross had nothing to do with the mass deportations which took place in the summer of 1944.

We, the undersigned historians, call upon the government to stop falsifying our recent past, to stop relativizing the history of the Holocaust in Hungary, and to abandon the plan to erect a memorial to the German occupation on Freedom Square in Budapest.

Bencsik Péter historian

Deák Ágnes historian

Eörsi László historian

Fazekas Csaba historian

Frojimovics Kinga historian

Gecsényi Lajos historian

Gyáni Gábor  historian

Hajdu Tibor historian

Hosszú Gyula historian

Karády Viktor sociologist

Karsai László historian

Kenedi János  historian

Klaniczay Gábor historian

Kovács M. Mária historian

Kövér György  historian

Majsai Tamás historian

Mink András historian

Molnár Judit historian

Ormos Mária historian

Paksy Zoltán historian

Pihurik Judit historian

Rainer M. János historian

Sipos Péter historian

    * * *

You will recall that Mazsihisz wrote a letter to Viktor Orbán in which the leaders of the organization expressed their misgivings about the direction in which the Holocaust Memorial Year is heading. They complained about Mária Schmidt’s reinterpretation of the Horthy regime and objected to the appointment of Sándor Szakály to head the “Veritas” Institute and demanded his resignation. In addition, they called on the government to give up the idea of a monument to the events of March 19, 1944. Yesterday came the answer:

* * *

A Statement by the Government Information Centre

January 21, 2014 2:50 PM

Historical facts speak for themselves. The time has come for us to erect a monument to all victims. This is a question of humanity. The debate concerning the monument is understandable because this is an important issue, but we very much hope that no one disputes the fact that the victims of the events that occurred following 19 March 1944 deserve to be remembered with compassion and respect. On 19 March 1944, Hungary was occupied by Nazi German forces; on this day, the country lost its independence.

The Fundamental Law of Hungary states very clearly: “We date the restoration of our country’s self-determination, lost on the nineteenth day of March 1944, from the second day of May 1990, when the first freely elected organ of popular representation was formed. We shall consider this date to be the beginning of our country’s new democracy and constitutional order. We hold that after the decades of the twentieth century which led to a state of moral decay, we have an abiding need for spiritual and intellectual renewal.”

This is why, to mark the 70th anniversary of the German occupation, the Government decided to erect a memorial in commemoration of all victims.

We ask everyone not to make a political issue out of this compassionate remembrance. It is the objective of Hungary’s Government for a culture of remembrance to become established in Hungary.

(Prime Minister’s Office)

* * *

There is one obvious question: what victims are we talking about besides Hungary’s Jewish citizens? Hungary continued the war uninterrupted on the German side just as before. Thus the peaceful occupation of the country made no difference in the military losses of Hungary. The reference to lost independence, of course, equates to a refusal to take any responsibility for what happened.

So, this is where we stand now. Orbán is planning to go ahead while Mazsihisz is standing firm.  As expected, the city council of District V with its Fidesz-Jobbik majority voted to grant the permit to construct the statue. Mazsihisz so far hasn’t changed its mind. As András Heisler, president of Mazsihisz, said, “trench warfare” set in.

St. George and the Dragon

St. George and the Dragon

In addition to Mazsihisz, there is EMIH (Egységes Magyarországi Izraelita Hitközség/Unified Israelite Religious Community/Chabad) whose leader, Rabbi Slomó Köves, has been on very friendly terms with Fidesz and the Orbán government. For example, Köves was appointed to be the official rabbi to the Hungarian armed forces. Even he is supporting Mazsihisz, but he suggests that besides the ultimatum-like voices an alternative program ought to be offered. Whatever he means by that.

Mazsihisz’s position has been greatly strengthened by Randolph L. Braham’support, who shares the point of view of Mazsihisz concerning the issues at hand. He considers the events of late a well orchestrated rewriting of history with a view to the rehabilitation of the Horthy regime. Braham in an interview given to Népszabadság said while talking about Sándor Szakály that he recalled the saying:  “Behind every dictator with  a sword there is a historian with a sponge in his hand.” How true.

And here is another topic we ought to cover. I may have criticized Colleen Bell for not being as well prepared for her Senate hearing as she should have been. However, no one in his right mind should think that her statement about current Hungarian politics is Colleen Bell’s personal opinion. It clearly reflects the U.S. State Department’s interpretation of Hungarian affairs. She was only the voice of this opinion. Therefore it is inexplicable why Gergely Gulyás addressed an open letter to Colleen Bell personally in today’s Magyar Nemzet. He accused her of bias. How will she be able to represent the United States with the kinds of prejudices she exhibited at the hearing, Gulyás asked. Bell shouldn’t be worried about the state of democracy in Hungary. The U.S. Embassy had nothing to say when in the fall of 2006 “the police force of the Gyurcsány government brutally attacked the peaceful demonstrators.” Gulyás at one point talked about Ferenc Gyurcsány’s party as a “left-wing Jobbik.” It is the Demokratikus Koalíció that poses a danger to democracy. He expressed his hope that “the Hungarian government can count on the new ambassador in the struggle against extremists.”

At the same time he talked about some of “the self-appointed Hungary experts” who have an influence on American diplomacy and who are committed to the Hungarian left-liberal side and are therefore unable to swallow the fact that it was a right-of center government that won the election. “These people try to mislead American diplomacy and the American public with the most absurd lies.” Finally, he drew a line in the sand: “The citizens of Hungary don’t need outside help in their decisions concerning their own future.”

Trench warfare with with Mazsihisz and open war against the United States. Where will this lead?

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Ovidiu
Guest

–“At the same time he talked about some of “the self-appointed Hungary experts”..”

I am ready to bet that he was thinking of you, Eva 🙂

An
Guest

“Moreover, I’m sure that it was systematically worked out with one overarching thing in mind: to take away the odium of the Holocaust from the Hungarians.”

Eva, I agree that the reinterpretation of history has been systematic and been in the works for a long time. But I don’t think it ultimate goal is to take away the blame for the killing of the Hungarian Jews. This is one of the goals, as the aim is to take away any blame for supporting the Nazi Germany in WW2. If you look at the narrative propagated, where Hungary is portrayed as the victim of Nazi Germany and not its ally, it has further implications. And I’m convinced that these further implications will soon be exploited by Orban’s propaganda machine to further stir up nationalistic and even revisionist sentiments in Hungary.

Member

ANNOINT THE “SELF-APPOINTED EXPERTS”!

Sandor Radnoti was spot on on ATV today when he said that Fidesz (Orban) seems to be unable to state he’s wrong about anything, for feel that this will lead to the discovery that he’s been wrong (and done wrong) in just about everything. And he has. And it will — thanks to the “self-appointed experts” like Kim Lane Scheppele, Rui Tavares, Eva Balogh, and Charles Gati. May their tribe increase! We need more experts to counter the execrable mendacity and treachery of Orban and his minions. Hungary will discover what an enormous historic debt it owe to these “self-appointed experts” — and I hope the discovery will be sooner, rather than later. Meanwhile, it helps that Orban cannot restrain himself from dispatching his attack dogs like Gergely Gulyas whenever anyone says the slightest disparaging word…

Member

(“feel” should be “fear” above: Eva, allowing an editing buffer would help those who post but only discover the typos when it has been rendered, and is no longer fixable…)

Steve
Guest
To properly evaluate the matters in connection with the Memorial for the German occupation of Hungary in March 1944, we ought to question the false assumption in the Fundamental Law of Hungary which states that that Hungary lost it’s self-determination on the 19th March 1944. Is that indeed so? As far as I can remember, Hungary remained a Kingdom with Admiral Horthy as it’s Regent, with a lawful Hungarian Government, a completely independent Parliament, it’s Army led by Hungarian Officers in a war being conducted by Hungary as in the previous three years with the lawful Hungarian Government being in charge of the Judicial, the Police and Gendarmerie, the Railways, borders, Army etc. What is this nonsense about Hungary being unable to govern itself. Did Hungary not ask for an armistice, were they not been able to use the Radio to declare the Government’s plans and even before that didn’t Horthy insisted on the sacking of certain people in Government and refuse to allow further deportations. Was it possible for the Regent to appoint the Lakatos Government or were they appointed by the Germans, who were Hungary’s allies? Was the occupation of Poland and Serbia even similar? Thus when did… Read more »
Minusio
Guest
I have maintained for almost four years that the Orbán regime will either implode or be ousted by the masses in the streets one day – but that this day was further away than anyone thinks. “The planned monument has already raised concerns and objections, and yet Viktor Orbán refuses to reconsider. Why is this monument so important to Fidesz and the present right-wing government? Why are they ready to alienate important groups at home and abroad for the sake of this hideous monument? Why did they announce their decision so late? Why the hurry?” The answers to those questions are in line with all earlier findings: Everything his regime does is important for Orbán. And he has shown that he doesn’t budge (or “reconsider”) – and the rest of the world has shown him that for the time being he can get away with it. In the eyes of Orbán the groups mentioned and which he alienates (further) are not important, neither at home nor abroad. He knows very well that 90% of the intelligentsia which is probably 80% Jewish and located in Budapest anyway are not going to vote for him. So why bother? In his mind the… Read more »
tomgrof
Guest

Eva, I am reading your blog daily and I find it extremely informative and useful and I am recommending it to everyone who in my view might be interested.
I draw your attention to the article written by Sandor Szakaly in the Elet es Irodalom 2012. September 14 LVl evf. 37. sz. In this article Szakaly wrote: 95% of the losses at the River Don of the forced labor troop was caused by the soviet Red Army. And then he cited figures for a longer period of time trying to blame the Soviets as enemies for all what happened to the forced laborers. It was already more than a year ago and nobody reacted! Now, he is appointed as the guardian of truth (head of Veritas Institute). Based on the above statement and the recent interview on Kamenec Podolski tragedy I must think that he is either antisemite or neo-nazi or totally ignorant. In either case it is a shame.
P.s. sorry for reacting late but I was traveling when you posted on Szakaly, however the topic is very similar.

Istvan
Guest

tomgrof in my opinion using unarmed Jewish labor battalions in combat areas at the River Don was a war crime. Hungary used slave Jewish labor effectively as combat engineers in the Russian offensive. Even if Szakaly’s position on Red Army fire being the cause of 95% of the deaths of these Jews were actually correct it would be irrelevant, because using non-combatants in such a situation is a war crime.

Combat engineers in every army of the world are armed and trained to fight when and if necessary. The Jews enslaved by Horthy’s orders were defenseless and purposely unarmed. For this act alone Horthy should have been tried as a war criminal, but as many of us know Stalin himself asked that Horthy not be tried at Nuremburg because he made an attempt to surrender.

Andy -- lemme know
Guest
I have been wanting to reflect on a few points of PSYCHOLOGY regarding Orban’s tactics.andn @Minusio’s comment No 7 gives an opportunity take up this question. Paragraph no 4 mentions the question of Orban’s unwillingness to reconsider or budge on his opions. Answer: Orban’s coninued power relies on an unwavering firm stance. In view of the despot, giving in to one demand might well cause other elements to come tumbling down. Orban’s key to authority lies in the unchallenged power over his entire party’s ranks and all its operatives. This means bull-dog type sticktoitiveness. It errs in the direction of discipline as opposed to being understanding of other opinions. Opening up discussions to the public or specialsits is seen as a sign of weakness from his standpoint. Indeed by keeping relevant information and plans close to his chest he avoids other people messing up his playing field with other priorities than his own. He has a SIMPLE MAGIC FORMULA: monetary profits to his friends (and I would assume himself). His ultimate goal is the ownership of ever increased hoarding of wealth until he has guzzled and vacuumed up every piece of value to be found anywhere. As with a hungry… Read more »
Pista285
Guest
Kerek-Barczy is right. Whoever still thinks that oh no, Orban does not think so, he just needs the votes from Jobbik is an idiot. I am sorry, but this is true. First, even if he ‘did not think so’ it would not matter as long as he did so, ie, setting up pseudo-historical institutes (a number of them), setting up pseudo-historical memorials, writing a page-long preamble full of lies, ordering changes to existing and obligatory high school history books etc. Orban has been on a systematic roll to rewrite history for years (starting with Terror Haza as one of his last acts from 2002), that is obvious, thus the considerations why he is supposedly doing it are irrelevant. Secondly, Mr. Szakaly, Ms. Schmidt are the very mainstream of the mainstream at Fidesz. They are not extreme, let alone fringe. Fidesz also commands a vast extreme right media empire from Magyar Forum, Magyar Demokrata, Echo TV, Magyar Hirlap to name but a few, but Helyi Thema, the free local paper is also of the same quality. These are just examples for the Fidesz-loyal extreme right wing media, where lies, anti-roma, anti-semitic opeds, history falsification are the daily norm. Compared to them… Read more »
Minusio
Guest

Just some more observations.

According to my Hungarian girlfriend, Orbán more or less continued business as he found it in 1998. He really only changed tack in 2000 what with the millenium and all.

@Pista285: Orbán didn’t say a word about what he was going to do after he would be elected. So actually, these “appeasement” talks among people didn’t take place – at least not in public. – The maniac monologue you mentioned is reminiscent of Hitler’s.

What has struck me over the last four years: Practically every bad rumor became law soon after it appeared.

gdfxx
Guest
Steve : To properly evaluate the matters in connection with the Memorial for the German occupation of Hungary in March 1944, we ought to question the false assumption in the Fundamental Law of Hungary which states that that Hungary lost it’s self-determination on the 19th March 1944. Is that indeed so? As far as I can remember, Hungary remained a Kingdom with Admiral Horthy as it’s Regent, with a lawful Hungarian Government, a completely independent Parliament, it’s Army led by Hungarian Officers in a war being conducted by Hungary as in the previous three years with the lawful Hungarian Government being in charge of the Judicial, the Police and Gendarmerie, the Railways, borders, Army etc. What is this nonsense about Hungary being unable to govern itself. Did Hungary not ask for an armistice, were they not been able to use the Radio to declare the Government’s plans and even before that didn’t Horthy insisted on the sacking of certain people in Government and refuse to allow further deportations. Was it possible for the Regent to appoint the Lakatos Government or were they appointed by the Germans, who were Hungary’s allies? Was the occupation of Poland and Serbia even similar? Thus… Read more »
gdfxx
Guest
tomgrof : Eva, I am reading your blog daily and I find it extremely informative and useful and I am recommending it to everyone who in my view might be interested. I draw your attention to the article written by Sandor Szakaly in the Elet es Irodalom 2012. September 14 LVl evf. 37. sz. In this article Szakaly wrote: 95% of the losses at the River Don of the forced labor troop was caused by the soviet Red Army. And then he cited figures for a longer period of time trying to blame the Soviets as enemies for all what happened to the forced laborers. It was already more than a year ago and nobody reacted! Now, he is appointed as the guardian of truth (head of Veritas Institute). Based on the above statement and the recent interview on Kamenec Podolski tragedy I must think that he is either antisemite or neo-nazi or totally ignorant. In either case it is a shame. P.s. sorry for reacting late but I was traveling when you posted on Szakaly, however the topic is very similar. Yes, the mines that the forced laborers were forced to pick by hand were indeed planted by the… Read more »
Pista286
Guest
Minusio: there were recurrent rumors before the elections and the ears of many among the intellectuals were attuned for those rumors. A new constitution and the nationalization of the pension funds were actually two topics for which there were a number of signs. One could here about those in lawyers’ and economists’ gatherings (and were written about even in normal media). Some lesser known Fidesznik suddenly mentioned something and some people realized that the guy must have said it because he was working on it. But most liberals I know dismissed them as, oh no, Fidesz would not do that, that would be too much, they are not like that, the boys, no… It is like now with the government by decree (aka Machtergreifung) of which Mr. Köver talked. Some naive leftwingers even thought that it was actually not a bad idea since there are too many laws anyway in Hungary, and in Western-Europe the governmental decrees, as instruments of law making, are used much more widely. Poor lefty – even in 2013 – did not realize that Köver did not want to introduce government by decree (and to leave out the Parliament) because Fidesz suddenly had legal theoretic issues… Read more »
Gardonista
Guest

I wish people would pay more attention to Slomó Köves. There is a large right-wing Orthodox Jewish community that respects this man, who seems to me to be completely dedicated to serving his personal self-interest.

Ovidiu
Guest

Horthy ‘man of civil order’- Budapest Times

http://budapesttimes.hu/2014/01/18/horthy-man-of-civil-order/

LwiiH
Guest

gdfxx :

tomgrof :
In this article Szakaly wrote: 95% of the losses at the River Don of the forced labor troop was caused by the soviet Red Army. And then he cited figures for a longer period of time trying to blame the Soviets as enemies for all what happened to the forced laborers. It was already more than a year ago

Yes, the mines that the forced laborers were forced to pick by hand were indeed planted by the Red Army. Probably that is what this idiot meant.

I thought the posting was quite thoughtful and he’s quite right, forcing unarmed people to work in the middle of an armed conflict is as good as killing them yourself. Lets not talk about the slave labour bit.

I personally find this whole plan to be an offensive towards Germans (as well as the victims). Today’s Germany is *not* the Germany of the past while we do need to remember, we also need to forgive. Rubbing Germany’s nose in it’s past promoting false icons is not part of forgiving.

LwiiH
Guest

Eva, there seem to be a couple of plug-ins that allow one to edit their own comments.
http://wordpress.org/plugins/search.php?q=edit+comments.

@gdfxx sorry but I though you were calling Tom and idiot.

Marcel Dé (@MarcelD10)
Guest

Eva S. Balogh :
I would like to offer a couple of thoughts for consideration. The first is that, in my opinion, preparations for the reinterpretation of the history of Hungary between the two world wars has been in the works for a long period of time. Since way before 2010. Moreover, I’m sure that it was systematically worked out with one overarching thing in mind: to take away the odium of the Holocaust from the Hungarians.

While I fully agree with the first point, I’m afraid the aim goes beyond the subject of the Shoah. Fidesz is simply reviving both authoritarianism and irredentism.

Ovidiu
Guest

@LwiiH–“Today’s Germany is *not* the Germany of the past”

Germany is today the main force driving the EU-project while Orban is against further EU integration because the EU-project means less sovereignty for Hungary, less political power to Budapest.

It may very well be, as @Ann said first here, that this “German occupation” monument aims further than whitewashing the Hungarian state role the 1944 deportations of the Hungarian-Jews.Its significance suits it well for becoming a gathering point for demonstrations against EU, against the would be “Fourth Reich” or “EUSSR”.

Orban shots two rabbits in one strike.He knows well that without Germany there is no EU.

Marcel Dé (@MarcelD10)
Guest

@LwiiH & Ovidiu.

Indeed. I can’t help drawing a parallel beetween the projected memorial, for which Germany was obviously not consulted, and Pdt Gauck & Hollande visiting the French town of Oradour last september. France (where some anti-German feelings had alas resurfaced with the Euro-crisis) was officially acknowledging that Germany wasn’t the same, and it was doing so **side by side with Germany**, while at the same time not forgetting a dramatic past.

Orbán’s long-term irredentist vision is incompatible with a strong EU. The flirt with Putin is only beginning, and has roughly the same function as that of Horthy’s flirt with Mussolini.

tappanch
Guest

Gardonista :
I wish people would pay more attention to Slomó Köves. There is a large right-wing Orthodox Jewish community that respects this man, who seems to me to be completely dedicated to serving his personal self-interest.

“large” = 1,000

Ovidiu
Guest

@Marcel De –

Yes.Now it makes more sense why Orban is so dead set to erect this monument despite its political costs and, if we are right, we will hear it soon from Orban himself when the monument will be unveiled.

Orban will spin it, he will play on the stereotype of the “German/Nazi-EU”, a trope we have already seen it in full force during the Greece’s euro-crisis.
He has already attacked Germany this way when Merkel criticized him :

Angela Merkel said they will not send in the ‘cavalry’ to Hungary over concerns about changes to its constitution.Hungarian PM Viktor Orban compared Mereke’s comments to 1944 Nazi invasion ‘Germans already sent cavalry to Hungary – they came in form of tanks’.Berlin responded by saying comments were a ‘deplorable derailment’.

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2327695/Angela-Merkel-says-send-cavalry-Hungarys-constitution-changes-provokes-fury-PM.html
—-

The monument will serve to “anchor” the anti-EU attitude. It will become a powerful symbol associating EU first with German supremacy and then with ‘Hungary-as-victim’.

Ervin
Guest

“Trench warfare with with Mazsihisz and open war against the United States. Where will this lead?”
This will lead to a Fidesz victory at the ballot boxes. This is Orbán’s game plane. This is his element: thematizing the public discourse. He wants the election campaign about history, rather than the economy, because in this way he can divide the opposition, while a debate about Paks would unite a large bloc of people.

Sandahl
Guest

Dear Ovidiu,

what are Orban’s supposed electoral costs?? Please.

Those who are against the statue would have never voted for Orban anyway.

The median, undecided voter does not care about this issue, that is a fact.

For Orban, this project is actually a net winner, because it makes clear that among the right wingers he, Orban is the toughest guy in town.

Only he dares to face the ‘Jews’. Only he dares to resist the Jewish lobby.

He does not just talk like Vona of Jobbik does. And even nowadays Vona and his colleagues are too restrained in the mainstream media, aren’t he? Can we really trust them to be as tough as we want them to be? (Of course at kuruc.info, Barikad etc. Jobbik is as anti-semitic and lunatic as it gets).Well, the staunchly right wingers better vote for Orban, because they can get a real bang for their buck.

At the same time Orban follows what his real agenda is:

to rewrite history with his right-wing ‘intellectual’ pals (Ms. Schmidt at al.) and make the liberals understand once and for all that their time is over. They will be assimilated. Any resistance is futile.

Ovidiu
Guest

@Sandahl -“what are Orban’s supposed electoral costs?? Please.”

I did not write about “electoral costs”, I wrote about “political costs”.
As Eva put it : “Trench warfare with with Mazsihisz and open war against the United States. Where will this lead ?”- it will lead to costs for Hungary as a whole one way or some other but for Orban/Fidesz in particular the gains will be greater than the costs.

Marcel Dé (@MarcelD10)
Guest

Ovidiu :
@Marcel De –
The monument will serve to “anchor” the anti-EU attitude. It will become a powerful symbol associating EU first with German supremacy and then with ‘Hungary-as-victim’.

I guess the keyword is ‘victim’. The four 1921 statues couldn’t obviously be brought back to Szabadság tér (at least not yet, but what about 2019?). So let’s put yet-another-stuck-in-the-19th-century-junk piece of art instead, with a slight nudge in context but basically the same visual message.

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