Krisztián Ungváry on the memorial to the German occupation of Hungary: “The Living Horror”

Ungvary KrisztianBelow is the English translation of an article by Krisztián Ungváry entitled The Living Horror (Az élő borzalom) that appeared in the original Hungarian in HVG (January 21, 2014). It is about the memorial the Hungarian government insists on erecting despite very strong opposition by historians, the Jewish community, and all those who would like the Hungarian officialdom and people to face historical facts instead of hiding behind a falsified history of the Hungarian Holocaust.

A few words about Krisztián Ungváry. Born in 1969, his interest in history was already evident in his high school days. He won several nationwide history competitions with his writings on history.

After graduating from high school in 1988 he worked for a few months at the Military History Archives cataloging documents pertaining to the Hungarian military in the 1920s. He entered ELTE (University of Budapest) to study history and German in 1989. While still an undergraduate he spent a semester at the University of Freiburg where he did research in the military archives at Freiburg and the allied archives in Koblanz.  He graduated from ELTE with first-class honors in January 1995. 

Right after graduation he began working on his Ph.D. His doctoral dissertation was on the siege of Budapest (1944-45) which was published in Hungary and has had several printings. It was translated into German a year after its appearance in Hungary (Die Belagerung Budapest [1999]). The first English translation of the book  (The Siege of Budapest) appeared in England in 2003 and in the United States in 2006. We discussed Ungváry’s latest book entitled  A Horthy-rendszer mérlege: Diszkrimináció, szociálpolitika és antiszemitizmus  [The Balance Sheet of the Horthy Regime: Discrimination, Social Policy and anti-Semitism in Hungary] (Pécs: Jelenkor, 2013) only recently.

For anyone interested in Krisztián Ungváry’s list of publications, it is available on the Internet. Among them there are several that are also available in German or in English.

This translation is the work of someone who remains anonymous, but it was made public by “Gabi Nagy” on Facebook. Gabi wrote: “Please share. People must know.” 

* * *

On January 17, the Hungarian government decided to erect a monument commemorating the German invasion of Hungary. (…) I would hope that more will be said about the aesthetic qualities of Imre Párkányi Raab’s work – more precisely, its lack of aesthetic qualities. Here, I am concerned only with how he and the Budapest Gallery are falsifying history to ensure that this … sculpture is erected in a public space. This focus is justified because the government, which commissioned the monument, has omitted to consult professional historians before selecting the proposed work. I would like to fill the gap left by that lack of consultation.

The artist says his work “uses the methods of art history and evokes figures from cultural history with allegorical forms. (…) Two cultures are represented: one, which thinks itself stronger, and which is certainly more aggressive, towers above a more tranquil and softer-lined figure, that of the Archangel Gabriel, who represents Hungary. Gabriel, in cultural and religious tradition, is God’s servant or God’s power personified.

“On Heroes’ Square, the Archangel Gabriel sits atop a column, among the clouds. In my composition, he has been laid low. … He is depicted as handsome and tranquil. His body is perfect, and there is no fear in his eyes. His face is tranquil, his eyes are closed. The monument explains that his dream will turn into a nightmare. A culture, its wings broken, is being crushed by a greater power: the Third Reich and the symbol that represents it: the Imperial Eagle. The depiction of the eagle is the exact opposite of the Archangel Gabriel’s. The Imperial Eagle is an assemblage of mass produced icons and symbols. It sweeps in flight across the world. Soon it will reach us and engulf Hungary, putting its inhabitants in chains.”

In the view of the sculptors Miklós Melocco and György Benedek, the work described above is “unique and outstanding in the way it conveys meanings that go beyond the unmistakable message of the explicit symbolism. … The way it reflects history is also remarkable. … We accepted more than 200,000 Polish refugees. Our country was at peace until 1943. The German army massacred as it arrived, and their Hungarian servants in the Arrow Cross movement murdered the country. At most, they intended to leave behind a few Hungarian slaves, temporarily. This lends a terrifying naturalness to the sculpture’s stylised depiction.”

Their opinion is a surprise, because students have been failed at university for less egregious historical distortions. Not to mention that the symbolism is unfortunate. It has already been pointed out that the “Nazi” eagle is actually a German national symbol – making its use in this monument both artistically and politically tasteless. (…)

But the tasteless execution is nothing compared to the historical distortions. Let’s take them in turn:

1. The events of 1944 are, to say the least, more complicated than a story of “bad” Germans fighting “good” Hungarians. Eichmann himself was thrilled by his experiences here, observing that the Hungarians must surely be descended from the Huns since nowhere else had he seen so much brutality “in the course of solving the Jewish question.” So much for the “more tranquil, softer-lined figure”.

2. The German invasion did not put the country’s population in chains. Rather, it opened the way for the country’s right-wing elite to redistribute the possessions of some 800,000 people. Very many people received some share of the spoils, and for that reason they are unlikely to have felt oppressed.

3. Not 200,000 but 70,000 Polish refugees arrived in Hungary. This is also a very large number and a positive story, but it has nothing to do with the German invasion.

4. Hungary was indeed an island of peace for many people until 1944, but not for its Jews. Apart from the more than 100 laws and regulations passed against Jews, there were pogroms in several places (in Kisvárda in 1938, and in Munkács and Máramarossziget in 1942), mass murders (a total of 700 Jews died in Southern Hungary in 1942), the mass deportation of some 17,000 people to Kamenets-Podolskii, continuous deportations of those who escaped until autumn 1942, not to mention inhumanely forced labour, which itself caused the death of more than 10,000 people by 1944. This isn’t as much as the millions of deaths elsewhere, but I wouldn’t call it a small number either.

5. The German army did not commit massacres as it arrived in Hungary. What we refer to as massacres were exclusively planned by the Hungarian authorities and partially carried out by them. Proposals to place the entire Jewish population in ghettos had been floated in Parliament as early as 1941, and it was only the tactical maneuverings of prime minister Miklós Kállay and Miklós Horthy, the head of state, that had stopped the proposals coming to a vote. But by March 1944, Hungary’s state bureaucracy had made the necessary preparations for bringing several hundred thousand people’s lives to a close, making sure that they had fully paid their water, electricity and gas bills before they were loaded into the cattle trucks.

6. Here it’s worth recalling that Hungarian authorities were not just implementing ideas they had got from the Germans. Some anti-Semitic measures were enacted over the protests of the Germans, as with the deportations to Kamenets-Podolskii, where in their eagerness, Hungarian authorities caused a humanitarian catastrophe by sending 10,000 robbed and starving Jews to an already devastated area. Some of them were immediately killed in ‘amateur’ pogroms carried out by local Ukrainian anti-Semites. It was only after this that the Germans decided to kill the Jews in order to ensure there was enough food for the local Ukrainian population, reduce the risk of an epidemic and to further their own anti-Semitic programme. This was the first mass murder in the history of the Holocaust whose number of victims ran into five digits. But the Hungarians behind the deportation had known from the outset that their actions would result in mass murder. Miklós Kozma, government commissioner for Carpatho-Ruthenia, the man principally responsible for the action, wrote as early as 1940 in his diary that “Himmler, Heydrich and the radicals are doing what they want to do. In Poland, people are being exterminated … The Polish Jewish ghetto near Lublin is partially solving the Jewish question, so vast is the scale of the deaths.” In July, news arrived of executions, but this did not stop the perpetrators – symbolised in the present monument by the Archangel Gabriel – from carrying on.

7. The “Arrow Cross servants” had nothing to do with the German invasion. A coalition government was formed in Hungary after the invasion, in which the former government party played a central role alongside Béla Imrédy’s Hungarian Renewal Party and a smaller national socialist party. But the Arrow Cross was NOT part of the government. Indeed, Szalasi, the Arrow Cross leader, criticised the deportations of the Jews, saying it was a waste of the nation’s labour reserves. One current ruling party politician said that the Hungarian state’s sovereignty was limited at this time because “a large part of the cabinet had been arrested.” Let’s count: two members of the Kállay government were arrested by the Gestapo – the prime minister himself and the interior minister. Nine ministers were not just free, but members of the new cabinet. Put it differently: there were only two members of the new, post-invasion government who had not been ministers before 1944. To be sure, one of the exceptions was the Döme Sztójay, the new prime minister, but both exceptions had been part of the pre-1944 Hungarian upper elite. Hardly “a large part of the cabinet”.

8. Eliminating the Hungarian nation did not feature among the goals of the German invasion or even long-term Nazi plans. The claim that they would have “temporarily left behind a few enslaved Hungarians” is completely false. The Nazis intended to exterminate Slavs and Jews, not others. Finally, it is exceptionally sneaky to argue that the monument “is dedicated to the memory of all victims,” as government party politician Antal Rogán has claimed. The German occupiers were responsible only for a relative handful of victims. Easily 99 percent of the deaths were caused by the Hungarian authorities who enthusiastically deported the Jews, and it was also the Hungarians that profited. When the unfortunates finally arrived in Auschwitz, everything had already been taken from them, including their wedding rings.

It is very wrong to try and pretend that both victim and murderer were on the same side. But this is what is being done. Authorities didn’t even consider building a central Holocaust memorial – and that’s no coincidence, since it would then be necessary to discuss Hungarians’ roles in all this. It would be very noble if someone whose grandfather died as a soldier on the banks of the Don river or had been killed while carrying out forced labour, were to mourn alongside someone whose grandfather had been driven out in 1944 and then been killed by German or Hungarian authorities. But this monument excludes that possibility by showing no empathy for a group of victims in whose death Hungarian authorities played a central role.

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Paul
Guest

The BBC’s report on all this:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-25864058

And, slightly OT – Vona is coming to Britain. For purely electoral purposes, of course…

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-25866467

(thanks to Jo)

spectator
Guest

One remark regarding the aesthetic values – or the lack of it – of the planned monument, I hardly think that Párkányi Raab is the only one to blame.
Looking at his previous works, while he represent a certain taste, artistic- and even ideological line, (what personally I dislike, but it is beside the question) he couldn’t be that retarded all by himself.
Indeed, the guidance and taste of Kerényi left a strong mildewy odour behind, just as we experienced in his previous involvement in art, or: what is supposed to be art.

All in all it’s a kitsch again in a multimillion class.
If I would really be a respectless bastard, I would recommend the live performance of the song on the opening ceremony, can be listened with the help of the link bellow – it represent the intellectual level of our great leader quite well. But, of course, I wouldn’t do that, oh no, never.
Here is the link, what I don’t recommend, anyway:
http://piroslapok.blog.hu/2013/10/26/orban_in_vino_veritas_neven_uj_tortenelemkutato_intezetet_grundolt

tinshed (@tinshed)
Guest

I read this on politics.hu this morning. Very powerful indeed from a real historian. Ungváry is a masterful scholar – his Siege of Budapest is the definitive account and well worth a reading. His credentials are impeccable.

tappanch
Guest
petercan
Guest
NewHistory2014
Guest

I can only praise the Hungarian UN Ambassador Csaba Korosi.
I wish that such people can reach leadership positions in FIDESZ or any other colors.
This my give us hope that the new generation will liberate Hungary from the failed traditions.

Mr. Paul
Guest

“In the view of the sculptors Miklós Melocco and György Benedek, the work…Their opinion is a surprise, because students have been failed at university for less…”

Is this a translation mistake or did the original article really quote the opinion of sculptors like Melocco and then said that they would fail at university?

petofi
Guest

tappanch :
The Biszku trial will start on March 18.
http://www.magyarhirlap.hu/marcius-kozepen-kezdodik-biszku-bela-pere-0

Another arrow in the Fidesz arsenal of ‘deflect and inflame’. The timing is to coincide with the central campaign period of the elections. Consider how Biszku is being ‘used’–shameless and disgusting Fidesz politics–as opposed to the treatment of Csatary who was shielded and left to
enjoy the confines of his wealthy Buda apartment, until he died (from what, we don’t know).

Manuel the manual
Guest
The German memorial statue is ready, the sculptor has prepared it. All the government decree to order it, all the supporting paperwork, all the municipal support are only there to create the legal basis for it. It’s a show, played in order to ‘lepapirozni’, to create a legal paperwork, so that the project could not be challenged from a legal point of view in the future, which is pretty important after all we live in a Rechtsstaat do we not? Like it was mentioned, Fidesz has an army of are smart lawyers working for them, who are always 10 steps ahead of any socialist politician or liberal observer. Fidesz never, repeat never lets the public to interfere in its plans. Only suckers would do that and they are winners. Fidesz works and prepares always in secrecy (after all, top Fideszniks are lawyers for whom that is natural and loyalty is anyway sacrosanct) and prepares everything for the ready, so then when something is announced there can simply be no turning back, since the thing is already made, what would they do now with this giant statue? They have to pay the poor sculptor, and already other involved people spent the… Read more »
tappanch
Guest

The new Civil Code, PTK, in force on March 15, will create a kind of “lèse majesté”.

The outgoing ombudsman asked the Constitutional Court to rule about it last summer.

http://www.ajbh.hu/documents/10180/111959/201302249Ai.pdf

Is there any development on this issue since then?

tappanch
Guest

German military data about the occupation:

Number of soldiers in Hungary (outside Carpatho-Ukraine & Northern Transylvania) :

3,825 on May 1,
4,826 on June 1

I think this debunks the Orban government’s attempt to claim that the Hungarian government acted under duress to deport the Jews in 1944.

tappanch
Guest

Correction – 4,816 German soldiers on June 1.

tappanch
Guest

Ránki Gy: 1944 Marcius 19, Kossuth Kiado 1978, p. 157
quotes

OL Filmtár 13972/57 kk

There were also front line troops in Carpatho-Ukraine & Northern Transylvania.

53,425 on May 1
41,661 on June 1

Waik
Guest

Good news is that apparently MSZP does not support Paks II. So it is now ‘only’ Fidesz and Jobbik.

Mr. Paul
Guest

“There were also front line troops in Carpatho-Ukraine & Northern Transylvania.
53,425 on May 1”

That is nonsense I am sorry to say. The front was nowhere near norhtern Transylvania on May 1. This is just a historical fact.

tappanch
Guest

@Mr Paul

The eastern Front on April 30, 1944.

comment image

tappanch
Guest

As you can see the Soviet troops reached the Carpathians. They were pushed back later.

tappanch
Guest

German lines on March 30:

comment image

tappanch
Guest

As you can see from the map, Hungary had a real chance to switch sides and turn history in early April 1944, since the German were routed.

But the Hungarian leaders were busy collecting and deporting the Jewish population instead.

tappanch
Guest

” On the 27th [of March] Hungarian troops moving into the mountains reported meeting German stragglers from Army Group South.”

“On the night of 30 March Zeitzler told Army Group South to take command of the First Mountain Division, one of the OKW divisions in Hungary, and move it into the pass.”

http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USA/USA-EF-Defeat/USA-EF-Defeat-13.html

Mr. Paul
Guest

tappanch :
As you can see the Soviet troops reached the Carpathians. They were pushed back later.

Can you read your own map? That you linked? They did not reach the Carpathians on your map. Maybe they reached within 500 km of the Carpathians. Can you read the country labels on it, on your own map? See the front? See the distance between the front and Hungary on your (not very high quality but it is what you brought) map? It is at least 500 km. There is a whole country (called Romania) that is in the way between Transylvania and the frontline. We cannot change history it already happened. There were no front line in Hungary in 1944 May 1. That is a historical fact that cannot changed.

Mr. Paul
Guest

tappanch :
German lines on March 30:
comment image

Once again on your second map you prove my point. The front never even touches Hungary not even for 1 cm… So it was impossible that the German troops in any part of Hungary were doing any amount of “front line combat”. The front was never in any Hungarian territory during this time, and your own two maps prove it as well as any historical research. All the main line fighting during this period took place in Romania many hundred KMs from Hungary. June even more so. July too.

And you were talking about May…

tappanch
Guest

Mr. Paul :

tappanch :
German lines on March 30:
comment image

Once again on your second map you prove my point. The front never even touches Hungary not even for 1 cm… So it was impossible that the German troops in any part of Hungary were doing any amount of “front line combat”. The front was never in any Hungarian territory during this time, and your own two maps prove it as well as any historical research. All the main line fighting during this period took place in Romania many hundred KMs from Hungary. June even more so. July too.
And you were talking about May…

” On the 27th [of March] Hungarian troops moving into the mountains reported meeting German stragglers from Army Group South.”

tappanch
Guest

It is very simple: there were almost no German “occupation” troops in Hungary when the deportations of Jews were carried out by the Hungarian authorities aside from the Carpathian defense lines.

Ovidiu
Guest

from page 289 on–overview of how the deportation plan was implemented

http://www.kffeducation.org/kff/fallacy/Millions/the%20shoah%20in%20carpatho.pdf

Mr. Paul
Guest
And it is also important to note the distinction between Ruthenia and Transylvania. My original sentence was that the front is nowhere near Northern Transylvania. Your second map illustrates this point very clearly “http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USA/USA-EF-Defeat/maps/USA-EF-Defeat-24.jpg” For a short period the front comes close to Ruthenia (Carpatho-Ukraine), but it never comes close to Transylvania. The Frontline is near Iasi a city that is many hundred KM away. If you look at a map you can see that Iasi is right on the border of today’s Romania like on the very edge. It takes five hours in ideal conditions in a car to get from Iasi to Transylvania according to google maps it is several hundred KM away. For a frontline to move that distance that can take a long time. As in real history the frontline was near Iasi in March but it remained there in April, and In May and in June and in July. Many months later and it was still many hundred KMs away from Transylvania. Anyway I do not want to debate this any more. There was no front combat in Hungary during these months that is a historical fact and not open to interpretation it will not… Read more »
Guest

I don’t get the importance of the “frontline”???

Imho the point is that there were (almost) no German troops in Hungary at that time to force the Hungarian government.

Now for something totally different:

The English translation is really very good! Compliments to whoever wrote it!

spectator
Guest

Eva S. Balogh :
I was surprised when someone said here that the socialists would support Paks because that was not the information I received.

While I don’t know about whether or not socialists supporting “Paks” as it is, I have to point out, that there is indeed a significant difference supporting a nuclear power plant – with all the associated negative connotations – and supporting Orbán’s way to handle it.

I have heard quite a few remarks, that the real effects of the power plant might even be positive – since there is no publicly available studies regarding the whole – the method how it was implemented totally unacceptable.

Could it be the question of interpretation what may- or may not the “support” initially meant, or intended for?

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