Paul A. Shapiro’s remarks on The Holocaust in Hungary: Evolution of a Genocide

Today I will share Paul A. Shapiro’s introductory remarks of February 26, 2014 at the Hungarian Embassy in Washington, D.C. Ambassador György Szapáry organized an event to mark the publication of The Holocaust in Hungary: Evolution of a Genocide, the latest in a series called “Documenting Life and Destruction” published by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. The book is authored by Hungarian Holocaust scholars László Csősz, Zoltán Vági, and Gábor Kádár.  They belong the younger generation of historians dealing with the subject of the Hungarian Holocaust. Gábor Kádár wrote several books together with Zoltán Vági, one of which was translated into English: Self-Financing Genocide: The Gold Train–The Becher Case–The Wealth of Jews, Hungary. In Hungarian, one of their important contributions is Hullarablás–A magyar zsidók gazdasági megsemmisítése and their latest, A végső döntés: Berlin, Budapest, Birkenau 1944. László Csősz is an associate of the Budapest Holocaust Memorial Center and is interested in the anti-Jewish laws and their economic consequences.

Paul Shapiro is the director for Advanced Holocaust Studies at the Holocaust Museum in Washington. This is not the first time his name has appeared in Hungarian Spectrum. A year ago I published his testimony on the growing anti-Semitism in Hungary before the U.S. Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe. This time his remarks were delivered before a small gathering in the Hungarian Embassy, and I thought they deserved a larger audience.

But first I would like to say a few words about the standoff between the Hungarian government and Mazsihisz (Magyarországi Zsidó Hitközségek Szövetsége/The Federation of Hungarian Jewish Communities). As you know, Viktor Orbán postponed the erection of the controversial statue that would have depicted Hungary as an innocent victim of German aggression and thus innocent of the Hungarian Holocaust.

Since then not much has happened except that ever more local religious communities are refusing to accept money from the Hungarian government for events connected with the memorial year. Among them is one of the more important synagogues in Budapest, on Leó Frankel Street. Apparently it is well attended by mostly young and highly educated people. A statement was released by the Frankel Synagogue Foundation a couple of weeks ago:

The Frankel Synagogue Foundation, in agreement with the Frankel synagogue community, does not wish to use the financial support it has won through an open tender from the Hungarian Government Civil Fund for the memorial events marking the 70th anniversary of the Holocaust.
Our aim is to draw attention to the government’s presentation of the Horthy era in a positive light, the appearance of Arrow Cross writers on the national curriculum and its qualification of mass murders as an “alien citizens’ procedure” as well as several other manifestations that are incompatible with granting support for memorial events that pay tribute to the victims of mass murders or an honourable way of thinking.
Naturally, we will still hold our memorial events. But do not wish to use support from a government that displays turncoat behavior, arousing the indignation of the majority of Hungary’s Jewish community as well as the democratic international community.
Outside of Hungary’s borders the Cluj/Kolozsvár Jewish community also raised its voice in protest. Before 1944 Kolozsvár was a large Jewish center whose members were Hungarian speaking. In 1927 the 13.4% of Kolozsvár’s population was Jewish. They will have their memorial events which will be attended by people from all over the world but they will make do with funds from other sources. I’m sure that financial help will come from many who live outside of Romania.
* * *

Paul Shapiro–Introductory Remarks

The Holocaust in Hungary:  Evolution of a Genocide

Embassy of Hungary

Washington, DC

February 26, 2014

Good evening, Ladies and Gentlemen.  I want to express appreciation to my friend Ambassador Szapary and the Hungarian Embassy for organizing this program and for hosting us here this evening.

Having been asked to say a few words of introduction, I would like to offer some comments regarding the book that we will hear about this evening, and then share a few words about why we feel this book is important, and why it is particularly important at this particular moment, during a year that marks the 70th anniversary of the deportation by Hungarian government and police authorities, acting in cooperation with a small band of Adolf Eichmann’s men and with the knowledge and assent of Regent Miklós Horthy, of hundreds of thousands of Hungarian Jews to their deaths at Auschwitz-Birkenau; during a year that marks the 70th anniversary of the crude crimes and murders perpetrated during the Arrow Cross (Nyilas) regime, which cost the lives of additional thousands of Jews; and during a 70th anniversary year that will be followed by Hungary’s assumption of the Chair of the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance.

First, about the book.

holocaust2Many of you know that one of the mandates that the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum received at its founding from the Congress of the United States is to assemble at the Museum archival collections that will enable scholars and educators to undertake serious research and to teach about the Holocaust based on the authentic historical record as reflected in original documentation from the years of the Holocaust itself.  Our archives contain tens of millions of documents collected from some 40 countries worldwide, including Hungary.

Most of this documentation, of course, is not in English.  And again in response to our Congressional mandate, “to educate about the Holocaust,” one of the projects we have undertaken in recent years, through a publication series that we call “Documenting Life and Destruction,” is to make available to English-speaking audiences worldwide authentic documentation of the Holocaust in English translation, so that it can be studied and used in teaching.  The Holocaust in Hungary: Evolution of a Genocide is the newest volume in that publication series.

What is special about this particular volume.  The content of the volume, of course, is powerful—a story of mass murder that took place when it was already clear that Hungary and her Axis allies would lose the war.  The Holocaust in Hungary is the story of one of every 10 Jews murdered during the Holocaust, and the book reveals through the original documents that it presents to the reader, the prejudices, anti-Semitism among cultural and other societal elites, political calculations and decisions, and absence of compassion that produced that horrible death toll of innocent victims.  Also special, all three of the authors of this important volume are young Hungarian scholars, each a Ph.D. and exceptionally well trained.  All three have been visiting fellows at our Museum, having succeeded, on the basis of the quality of their work, in winning fellowships through the very rigorous international competition that we organize each year.  Two of the authors were on the four-person design team of experts that created the extraordinary and historically accurate permanent exhibition at the Holocaust Memorial Center on Pava Street in Budapest a decade ago; and the third author, László Cősz, is currently the Senior Historian at that very special Hungarian institution.  So we know that the volume is of high quality.  That Randolph Braham, Distinguished Professor Emeritus at the City University of New York and one of the rare survivors of the Hungarian Jewish Labor Service, has provided a foreword to the book further adds to its authority.  Thus, this book, on its merits, deserves special attention, and again, I want to thank the Embassy for this opportunity to present it.

Now, why do I stress the importance of this book at this particular moment?  The answer lies not in our archives, not at the Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies at our Museum, and not in Washington, … but in Hungary.

Last year, the Hungarian Government announced an extensive set of programs and projects that it intended to sponsor during this 70th anniversary year of the tragic, murderous 1944 events to which I have already made reference.  Some of the projects were controversial, and were perceived to suggest a continuation of disturbing trends that might result in distortion of the true history of the Holocaust.  But the Government promised consultation, inclusion, and transparency, and solicited advice and recommendations, even from my own institution.  Some of our recommendations were included in my testimony before a Congressional Committee nearly a year ago, and thanks to the assistance of Ambassador Szapáry, we were able to share our thoughts in person and in writing with officials of high state authority in Budapest.  I won’t repeat the content of my testimony, but I will say that we still feel that our recommendations had merit, and that it is unfortunate that not one of them has been embraced by the Government of Hungary.  But that is not the crux of the matter.  As I say, it is not what happens in Washington that is important in this story, but what is happening in Hungary.

Regrettably, recent developments surrounding three of the government’s 70th anniversary projects have raised doubts about whether true consultation and transparency exists—that is, consultation and open discussion in which serious objections and carefully argued suggestions might be taken seriously.  You all know the three issues:  1) the offensive and history-cleansing remarks made by Sándor Szakály, director of the newly created Veritas History Institute, which appeared to whitewash actions of the Horthy government that resulted in the deportation from Hungary of 18,000 Jews in 1941 and the murder of most of them;  2) the rush to create and display an “alternate history” of the Holocaust, without the guidance and input of leading Holocaust scholars and the Hungarian Jewish community, at a new museum, the so-called “House of Fates,” being installed at the Jázsefváros rail station on the outskirts of Budapest, rather than strengthening the city’s existing Holocaust Memorial Center; and, most recently, the planned German occupation monument, which, by making it appear that Hungary was an innocent victim, most observers consider will lead to a downplaying of “the active contribution of the Hungarian authorities” and “the Hungarian state’s central role in the mass deportations of 1944.” (See AFP, “US Scholar Returns Hungary Award over Whitewash, January 26, 2014; and New York Times, “Holocaust Scholar Returns Top Award to Hungary in Protest,” January 27, 2014).

Professor Braham, whose expertise is uniquely respected around the world, sees a “campaign of history falsification.”  A group of researchers and historians from within and outside Hungary have issued an open statement of concern (dated January 28, the full text is available on Amerikai Magyar Népszava, February 2, 2014).  Dr. Katrina Lantos Swett, President of the Lantos Foundation for Human Rights and Justice in Budapest, has issued a statement calling for an end to “mixed messages” and objecting to an occupation monument approach that promotes “utter amnesia regarding the role of the Hungarian government in the worst atrocities of that tragic occupation.” (Lantos Foundation Statement, February 3, 2014).  Clearly, these prominent personalities are signaling a serious crisis of confidence in the Holocaust Memorial Year.

But the most revealing and grave indication that a change of course is necessary has been the reaction of the country’s still vibrant, though of course much smaller, Jewish community.  Without recounting the entire sequence of events, it is sufficient to say here that a significant number of Jewish organizations, including some of the most important—MAZSIHISZ, that is, The Federation of Hungarian Jewish Communities, The Dohány Synagogue Foundation, The Hungarian Jewish Cultural Association, regional Jewish community associations, and others—after seeking to consult with the government and seeing their concerns and suggestions rejected, have announced that they will no longer participate in Holocaust Memorial Year events.  Institutions and individuals that had received grants from the government’s Holocaust Memorial Year fund have returned the grant monies in order to emphasize their objections.  (Some non-Jewish associations have done the same.)  When one considers that many of these organizations receive their core funding from the state budget, it is difficult to overstate the courage they have shown by speaking out, and it is impossible to fail to understand the depth of concern that has generated their protest.

It would be difficult to characterize the government’s response thus far as forthcoming.  Minister of State János Lázár, who is managing the Holocaust Memorial Year agenda, has accused MAZSIHISZ of “sabotage,” of issuing “ultimatums,” and of thus putting at risk long-term “Jewish-Hungarian coexistence.”  To a community commemorating the 70th anniversary of the murder of over three quarters of its members, such language must sound chilling indeed.  Construction of the German occupation monument has been delayed … temporarily, but up to now there is no sign that other corrective steps are being taken.  I did note, however, that after Minister of State Lázár met with a round table of Jewish community representatives on February 6, he stated that without the support of the Jewish communities, the “House of Fates” project “would be meaningless,” and he stated that “it is important to unravel the events of 1944, in order to clearly determine responsibility” (Government of Hungary Press Release, February 6, 2014).  As my friend Ambassador Szapáry knows from our conversations, I am an eternal optimist.  If Mr. Lázár’s statements indicate a willingness to consult in earnest, I would urge the Hungarian government to heed MAZSIHISZ’s call for significant investment to dramatically strengthen the programs and capabilities of Holocaust Memorial Center as Hungary’s principal institution for Holocaust education, school visits, and research.  And in light of the potential for distortion and misunderstanding of the history of the Holocaust in Hungary that has raised so much concern, I would encourage the government to consider again the possible establishment of a high-level international commission of scholars to prepare for the government, on the basis of authentic archival documentation, a report to be made public that will “unravel,” to borrow the Minister of State’s word, in an unequivocal and authoritative manner, the historical questions to which Mr. Lázár has referred and other Holocaust-related issues where the history can be clarified.

Seventy years ago, the state leadership of Hungary—Regent Miklós Horthy and his government ministers, in particular—failed to listen to the repeated desire for inclusion and, later, the urgent pleas for help in extremis that came from Hungary’s Jewish community.  What the country’s Jewish citizens got, instead, was anti-Semitic legislation; exclusion from the protection of the state; deportation and death at Kamenetz Podolski; murder in Újvidék; gassing at Auschwitz-Birkenau; death marches; and, under Szálasi, fanatical killings on the streets and on the banks of the Danube in Budapest during the final months of the war.  For Horthy, Szálasi, and others who held leading positions in Hungary at the time—as for Adolf Eichmann and his group of SS-men—this record has left a stain on their legacy that must be confronted honestly and that will never be wiped clean, however much all who care deeply about Hungary might wish the situation to be otherwise.  Historical fact is historical fact, and neither wishing, nor lobbying, nor wilful or even unintended manipulation can change that.

Today, once again, the Jewish community of Hungary is seeking real inclusion, real consultation, and is pleading for today’s more modern, better educated, democratically elected state leadership, to listen to their legitimate concerns and to be responsive regarding appropriate commemoration of the Holocaust; preservation in a dignified way of the memory of the majority of the Jewish community that was lost forever; and commitment to teaching Hungary’s young people the historical truth, without distortion, obfuscation, or the presentation of more convenient or more comforting “alternate facts.”  As in Horthy’s time, the long-term legacy of today’s national leadership vis-à-vis the tragedy of the Holocaust, will depend on the Hungarian government’s response.

The book of László Csősz, Zoltán Vági, and Gábor Kádár demonstrates that the truth regarding many issues that have been deemed “controversial” is knowable and documentable.  We are hopeful that this book may provide a starting point for corrective action that will alter the trajectory of events in Hungary that I have described.  Our Museum stands ready, as we have stated repeatedly, to contribute in ways that we can to serious remedial efforts.  We will continue during this anniversary year to promote and present well-documented scholarly work on the Holocaust in Hungary.  There will be a full-day symposium on this subject at the Museum on March 19.  I hope that you will attend.

With thanks again to Ambassador Szapáry for his indulgence, let me now turn the floor over to Dr. László Csősz.

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The most interesting point – at least for me, since much about the Holocaust in Hungary has been written here already:

What was the reaction of the audience (including the ambassador …) to this?



All fine except for the oily and rather contradictory allusions to “my friend” Ambassador Szapáry. Knowing the faithful code of Omertà that binds Fidesz, I profoundly doubt that Szapáry has diverged in any way from the party line in public. (And we all know how much Fidesz’s off-the-record assurances and extra-territorial double-talk are worth.) So perhaps the “my-friendliness” and “eternal-optimism” are just Washington diplomacy, in the context of the stark list of the ways in which the concerns of historians and the Jewish communities have been without exception systematically ignored by the current Hungarian government.

I was of course also yearning for a broadening of the critical brief to include not just untruthfulness and injustice regarding Fidesz’s history on Jewish and Holocaust matters, but its untruthfulness and injustice in general. But that, I suppose, with regret, really would have stretched the bounds of diplomacy.

All this politesse, while Fidesz continues to drag Hungary into autocracy with impudence and impunity…

Mr. Paul

A much more interesting question is, how does Éva have such an eye for attention to detail that even “a small gathering in the Hungarian Embassy” cannot escape it.


A group of Fidesz-managed trolls under the false-name of “Mr Paul” wrote: :
“A much more interesting question is, how does Éva have such an eye for attention to detail that even “a small gathering in the Hungarian Embassy” cannot escape it.”

The question of interest for the rest of the world is a historic and humanitarian one. The question for Fidesz is: How did Professor Balogh come to hear of this?

Rather like the publication of Professor Scheppele’s detailed and substantive critique of Fidesz’s election rigging. The “interesting question” for the Fidesz-controlled media then was: How does Galamus get a Hungarian translation in advance?

This sort of question-begging, conspiratorial innuendo plays well to the Fidesz brain-washees and cronies. But Hungarian Spectrum is an honest, international forum, where justice, democracy — and, I might add — decency is what is most “interesting,” not Fidesz’s foul electioneering spin.

Stevan Harnad
Canada Research Chair, Université du Québec à Montréal
External Member, Hungarian Academy of Sciences


Mr. Paul :
A much more interesting question is, how does Éva have such an eye for attention to detail that even “a small gathering in the Hungarian Embassy” cannot escape it.

Please enlighten us, why is that be so interesting?
I for one am very happy that we hear news that we would certainly not learn from the Hungarian media. Thank goodness this “media” remains as a solid resource for news. Does it bother you that Fidesz was not able to cut off everyone yet?
..and the much more interesting question is, why can’t we read about gatherings like this in the Hungarian news portals?



Why on earth would you respond to an obvious effort to smear you by innuendo?
This guy is spewing garbage whenever he can.

Mr. Harnad, on the other hand, is admirable.

Since I’ve been thinking about this lately, let me say something about the roots of my error and sarcasm: they are founded on Fidesz/Orban efforts to turn 2500 years of advances in politics, philosophy, economy, etiquette…to dust. We are to gainsay everything honored and advanced
on the word and actions of self-delusional, evil, dictator backed by shadowy forces and acting
in the long-term detriment of the nation. It is disgusting that the Catholic Church should be complicit in such evil activity for its personal gains. And it is surely stomach-churning that the greed and self-importance of Hungarians does not give them the powers to see what is afoot.


correction: (spell check should be abolished)….”error” should read “ANGER”. Bloody hell..

Mr. Paul

Why on earth would you respond to an obvious effort to smear you by innuendo?”

Please, please don’t hold back. Tell us and explain, what was the “smear” that you cleverly noticed?


[…] 9 March 2014.  Hungarian Spectrum: ‘Paul A. Shapiro’s remarks on The Holocaust in HungaryL Evolution o… […]


@ Mr. Paul



On the basis of this article I have ordered a copy of “The Holocaust in Hungary: Evolution of a Genocide”. I look forwarding to reading it. Thank you publicising its existence.

Mr. Paul

Meanwhile Zuschlag was threatened with the words : „Ezt nem felejtjük el neked, és ezért meg fogsz halni.” (“We will not forget this for you, and you will die for this”).
On the very same day, the car of Viviene Szalai who was working on the same upcoming book about Zuschlag had her car broken into. The perpetrators took her laptop, containing the transcript of the book about János Zuschlag’s life and the personal effects (messages) of the victim.



A group of Fidesz-managed trolls under the false-name of “Mr Paul” wrote :
what was the “smear”…?

The implication that Professor Balogh had some sort of insider information, and that there was something “interesting” about that. Not a word about substance. Characteristic Fidesz strategy of switching from substance to smear. And here it’s a Fidesz troll-team under a false name, smearing a named scholar, publicly.

Stevan Harnad
Canada Research Chair, Université du Québec à Montréal
External Member, Hungarian Academy of Sciences

Mr. Paul

“Not a word about substance. ”

Perfect description of your own post. Your usual style of operation is in full display here.

I would suggest for everyone following this, to open a dictionary at the word smear. For example:
“A false accusation intended to damage someone’s reputation”. There was no false accusation and no damage.

Let me tell you what it was: A simple question, a simple answer from Éva.
And then inexplicable rage about how all if this could have happened?

@ Éva, you wrote earlier:
“I had never heard of called A Haza nem Eladó Mozgalom Párt (The Homeland is Not for Sale, Árpád Kásler). Given the name, I assume that it is a far-right opposition party.”

I have managed to learn that this is the party of the so called “devizahitel károsultak”. The people who lost their houses in forex loan deals.


I too ordered an electronic copy of the book on Amazon based on the review Eva so thoughtfully provided to her readers. It is really a massive book 520 pages. This is not the first book I became aware of because of Eva’s posts, I also became aware of the historian Nora Berend and I have been reading one of her studies on Hungary in the Middle Ages. Her research is destroying many of the myths I was raised with by my family about the supposed magyar történelem dicsőséges lapja. Lastly, I began to read several of the novels of Imre Kertesz because of the comments that appeared on this blog in reference to several of his characters.

Again thanks to Eva for her hard work on this site and to our friend Mr Paul for keeping me in touch with the predominate cynicism of the Orban regime even while I am here in the US.


It is with a very heavy heart that I came to the conclusion that Mr. Paul should not be allowed to continue posting on this blog. So far, 11 out of 15 comments (including mine) are Mr. Paul’s or related to him/her/them. Since the posts are long, more than 90% of the commentary space have been hijacked, and it look like it is going from bad to worst as Mr. Paul seems to relish the exercise and is quite good at it.


Curious Mr. Paul.


Zsuzsa Hegedüs, one of Orban’s token Jews, and a die-hard Orbanist if there ever was one who lives in Paris is also operating behind the scenes to keep Mazsihisz within Orban’s orbit.

Orban has been keeping Hegedüs on the payroll of the Prime Minister’s office as a personal advisor, probably because Orban reckons a Jewish Fidesznik is worth any price.

But should she be unsuccessful, that’s OK too.

See Orban’s Jewish issue (which is strictly a PR issue) will be solved by Jews, some will be out, others will be in.

The caravan meanwhile advances relentlessly.


Zsuzsa Hegedüs, one of Orban’s token Jews, and a die-hard Orbanist if there ever was one, is also operating behind the scenes to keep Mazsihisz within Orban’s orbit.

Orban has been keeping Hegedüs on the payroll of the Prime Minister’s office as a personal advisor, probably because Orban reckons a Jewish Fidesznik is worth any price.

But should she be unsuccessful in her current efforts, that’s OK too.

See Orban makes sure that his Jewish issue (which as far as he is concerned is strictly a PR issue) will be solved by Jews, some will be out, others will be in. After all, it’s their problem, so they should sort it out.

The caravan meanwhile advances relentlessly.


re Mr. Paul

There is a saying that is particularly apt in his case:

“Good riddance to bad rubbish.”


OT: Is Martonyi really such an idiot as it sounds?


Some1, I was reminded by an historical suspicion that Shakespeare’s works were actually not written by Shakespeare himself, but someone else whose name also happened to be Shakespeare.

OT: state of Hungarian “independent” media, part 785. (see link below) the supposedly independent internet site of the slowly disappearing weekly printed HVG is making fun of Együtt with a pretty degrading language. They of course don’t do that with Fidesz, they would never dare to. Instead of actually going after the legitimate problem raised by Együtt, HVG is strongly mocking Együtt. The problem is that TV2, the second most popular TV channel (group of channels), decided not to allow campaign advertising on its channels. However, TV2 decided to allow the government’s advertisements because those are not deemed to be “campaign-advertising”, meaning TV2 is helping Fidesz’ campaign (as we know TV2 was “purchased” by two strohmen recently, the fidesznik CEO and his deputy, a Hungarian-American whose husband’s law firm works for Fidesz). HVG one of the last non-directly Fidesz owned media has always been blissfully categorized as leftist/liberal. It is still owned by a German media company. After the fall of Gavra Gabor however it seems that the new management is shitting in their pants as business is terrible (nobody advertises, those who do, are state-owned companies, but not at and any relief to the Germans may only… Read more »

Hungary has been a NATO member for 15 years and has never been called on to act militarily in Central Europe. Hungary is now a front line state if Russia moves to take more of the Ukraine.

British foreign secretary William Hague was reported in the Guardian as having said today Europe would be in “great danger of a shooting conflict” if Russian troops invaded the rest of the Ukraine. That phrase – great danger – is questionable. As of today there has no motion made to the North Atlantic Council (NAC) of NATO to in anyway defend the rest of Ukraine if Russia moved in force beyond the Crimea. NATO has no treaty obligation to defend what is left of the Ukraine and the NAC would be required to adopt a special resolution In order for the NATO military committee to even begin to prepare for a shooting conflict.

If a shooting conflict did begin would Hungary help defend what remains of the Ukrainian nation from Russian aggression?


I retract part of that comment, Hungary provided support forces in the NATO intervention against Serbia. But no combat aircraft to my knowledge.


Sharp exchange of letters between the Mr Wolffsohn of Germany, a supporter of M. Schmidt, and Mr Heisler of MaZsiHiSz.

Roll down for the English originals.–michael-wolffsohn-es-heisler-andras-levelvaltasa-6898.html

Mr. Paul

Antal :
Zsuzsa Hegedüs, one of Orban’s token Jews, …is also operating behind the scenes to keep Mazsihisz within Orban’s orbit.

Your view seems to be a little simplistic. Not to mention offensive. Zsuzsa Hegedüs is an internationally known expert in the area of conflict resolution. It is in this capacity, she is working to resolve the conflict with Mazsihisz. It was her idea that the negotiations should continue only after the elections. Népszabadság printed a big interview with her not long ago.


Mr. Paul, Zsuzsa Hegedüs is a committed, religious Fidesznik, some say a bit crazy too.

Whatever she does using her supposed non-Fidesznik credentials does not matter, because she will forever remain Orban’s token Jew.

Orban knows that the Jewish community is divided and we all know the saying, two Jews and three opinions.

Hegedüs is more than a willing puppet in this game, I do not know what he deal is but she has got one that’s for sure.

Hegedüs and her pals at the Prime Minister’s office knew that in order to look conciliatory she needed “an opportunity to tell about her opinions” in a medium that is deemed by most people as non-right wing, which Jews more likely read than Magyar Nemzet.

This interview with her is not much more than a planted PR article. Népszabadság, now on a short leash under the enigmatic owner (Mr. Pecina, who is a practical strohmann and a personal advisor to all major Ukrainian oligarchs) will do whatever is kindly requested from it by certain people around Mr. Janos Lazar or Viktor Orban.


The Hungarian elections too may be a bit closer than what people now predict.