Bálint Hóman is rehabilitated

Among the best-known Hungarian historians of the twentieth century were “Hóman-Szekfű.” The two last names grew together, something like Ilf-Petrov or Gilbert and Sullivan. They were the authors of a monumental eight-volume history of Hungary, published between 1928 and 1941. The first three volumes were written by the renowned medievalist Bálint Hóman (1885-1951), the other four by Gyula Szekfű (1883-1955). The last volume contains a detailed index. Although Hóman-Szekfű is available online today, I’m still thrilled that I managed to buy a set in the late sixties in Budapest.

Both men studied history at the University of Budapest, at about the same time, and both eventually taught at the same university. But the two men had very different ideas about Hungary’s place in the world before 1918. Hóman was more of a “kuruc” who favored an independent Hungary, while Szekfű was more of a “labanc,” a supporter of the liberal Hungarian governments loyal to the constitutional structure that came into being in 1867. After World War I Szekfű’s sympathies lay with Great Britain and the United States while Hóman became increasingly pro-German.

Bálint Hóman might have been a good historian, but as a politician he failed miserably and eventually ended up serving a life sentence for his political beliefs. In 1930 he accepted the position of minister of education in the Gömbös and Darányi governments (1932-1938) and later in the Teleki, Bárdossy, and Kállay governments (1939-1942). After the declaration of war he stood by his strong belief that Hungary’s place was on Germany’s side and disapproved of the Hungarian government’s timid steps to make a separate peace with the Allies. Hóman remained a member of parliament even after October 15, 1944 and then, with Ferenc Szálasi and the Arrow Cross leaders, fled to the West. He was captured by the Americans in Germany and sent back to Hungary. In 1946 the people’s court sentenced him to life imprisonment. One of the charges against him was signing the declaration of war against the Soviet Union. He died in prison in 1951.

Ever since the regime change first Hóman’s son and after his death a collateral relative worked assiduously to annul the verdict of the people’s court, whose proceedings admittedly left a great deal to be desired by normal judicial standards. We don’t know all of the charges that the people’s court brought against him. But the court that considered his rehabilitation and that ultimately, on March 6th of this year, declared Hóman innocent seems to have concentrated only on his participation in the June 26, 1941 cabinet meeting that decided on war against the Soviet Union. That is, however, unlikely to have been the only charge originally brought against him. Otherwise, all of the members of Bárdossy’s cabinet should have ended up in jail. But of the nine people present at the cabinet meeting, which included Prime Minister László Bárdossy, it was only Bárdossy, Hóman, and Lajos Reményi-Schneller who were found guilty by the people’s courts. All of the others, with the exception of Ferenc Keresztes-Fischer who subsequently lived in emigration, died of natural causes in the 1950s and 1960s in Hungary. One of them, a chemist, actually became a full member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in 1946. And so we must assume that the guilty verdict rendered against Hóman in 1946 couldn’t have been based only on his being present at that crucial cabinet meeting.

Homan

Besides concentrating exclusively on his role as a cabinet member, the court in the retrial heard evidence from only one side of the political spectrum. The sole “historical expert” was Gábor Ujváry, a historian working for the Veritas Historical Research Institute. Ujváry’s expert opinion on the events of 1941-42 reflected the views of the right. Here are a few examples. Hungary’s declaration of war against the Soviet Union came after the bombing of Kassa/Košice, a city that belonged to Hungary at the time. To this day it remains a mystery which country’s planes dropped 29 bombs on the city. Ujváry seems to be pretty certain that they were Soviet planes, which had been sent to bomb the Slovak city of Presov/Eperjes but got lost and ended up 36 km. away. In the Kádár regime it was more or less accepted that they were German planes because the German military wanted to force the somewhat unwilling Hungarian government to enter the war on the German side. This version was based on the testimony of Colonel Ádám Krúdy, the commander in charge of the Košice airport, who reported to Bárdossy that the planes had yellow stripes painted on their wings and fuselages, which identified them as planes belonging to the Axis powers.

Ujváry also claimed that only a falsified version of the transcript of the actual cabinet meeting is available, and thus Hóman’s “intentions” cannot be ascertained. It is possible, the prosecutor suggested, that he was faced with a fait accompli. Moreover, he continued, basing his argument on the historian’s expert testimony, “in those days one had two bad choices: either Hitler’s Germany or Stalin’s Soviet Union.”

Gyula Juhász, a respected historian who wrote during the Kádár period, had a different take on the cabinet meeting. In his book on the foreign policy of the Teleki government, he noted that Bárdossy had indeed falsified the transcript in order to minimize his own responsibility and that he left out those parts that contained comments that were against the declaration of war. Juhász nonetheless claims to have known that Ferenc Keresztes-Fischer spoke several times against the proposal and that he was supported by József Varga and Dániel Bánffy, while Bálint Hóman, Lajos Reményi-Schneller, and Károly Bartha “enthusiastically supported” the declaration of war.

The events that led to Hungary’s decision to join the war on the side of Germany against the Soviet Union remain murky, and determining culpability in such circumstances is always a difficult proposition. I therefore think that calling just one expert witness from the Veritas Institute was unacceptable. The court should have gotten another historian with a possibly different interpretation of the events. I also found it odd that the prosecutor spoke as if he were the lawyer for the defense. Overturning the verdict of one questionable trial by means of another is no remedy.

By now everybody assumes that Hóman will also be reinstated as a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. However, László Lovász, the well-known mathematician and currently president of the Academy, said in a recent interview that if a group of academicians brings the question to the floor and if there is a vote, “the Academy must distance itself from the ideas promulgated by Hóman.” Historian Mária M. Kovács goes even further. She quotes from the Academy’s ethical codex, which states that the Academy demands from its members “the utmost respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.” Given Hóman’s rabid anti-Semitism, his eligibility is questionable, she argues. After all, he had a hand in the formulation of the first anti-Jewish law, which he himself sponsored in the parliament. When one of his fellow ministers, Andor Lázár, minister of justice, expressed his disapproval of the proposed law, Hóman called for his resignation. A month before the German occupation he demanded the deportation of all Hungarians of Jewish origin. In brief, she contends, he is not qualified to be a member of the Academy.

Sándor Révész of Népszabadság, a day after the court had rehabilitated Hóman, wrote that his proponents on the government side want to restore Hóman’s honor by this decision, but that can be done only with “the restoration of the honor of Nazi Germany, Hitler, the leaders of the Arrow Cross and mass murderers.” Right now there certainly seems to be an attempt to forget about Hóman’s real sins.

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gdfxx
Guest

I guess we are not too far in time from a statue of Hitler (maybe in tandem with Szalasi) on a major square in Budapest.

Webber
Guest

You may be right. When they changed the name of Roosevelt tér (square) a couple of years ago the r-wing press, incl. Magyar Nemzet, ran pieces explaining that Roosevelt was the leader of America when it was at war with Hungary, and therefore the square should be renamed (Széchenyi now – as if he didn’t already have enough places in the city dedicated to him). So, it would be logical to dedicate squares to the allies – Hitler and Mussolini. Oktogon and Kodály Körönd would work. They were named for the SOBs during the war, after all.

Also, when the Hungarian Studies Association protested against the logic underlying the renaming of Roosevelt square, the current Hungarian Ambassador to France (count) Károlyi, and Géza Jeszenszky weighed in (though they weren’t members of HSA) objecting to the protest and saying that it was all wrong, and that it was unfair to the Hungarian government. I think they should be the ones to cut the tape at Mussolini tér.

Webber
Guest

Perhaps I should add that the Hungarian Studies Association is an American organization.

Womack
Guest

The enfeebled FDR effectively sold Hungary to the Soviets so he isn’t too popular on the right-wing. That said, since the renaming Russia became a focus of admiration for many right winger (besides jobbik voters, I can mention my still fervently pro-Fidesz in-laws).Too bad Roosevelt square was named after Teddy Roosevelt. There is so much confusion on the right-wing, but right wing people seem to be at peace with these contradiction (which they simply don’t notice).

Most of the members of the Academy of Sciences are elderly, conservative, right-leaning and nationalistic, needless to say I predict that Hóman will be rehabilitated. Orban is relentlessly building its right-wing credentials and this is a cheap move, doesn’t cost money, so he will arrange that. Members know that the punishment would be inevitable (funding cuts).

Webber
Guest

There seems to have been a little confusion over which Roosevelt it was, but I am pretty sure it was FDR, not Teddy, and an article from the time of the renaming also says it was:

“Roosevelt elnök egyébként a tizedik névadója volt a placcnak, amelynek neve a praktikum és a politikai széljárás szerint így alakult: Só tér (1804), Sóhivatal tér (1809), Kirakodó tér (1812), Ács tér (1812), Felső Dunasor (1840-es évek), Lánchíd tér (1850), Ferenc József tér (1867), Október 29. tér (1918), Ferenc József tér (1919). Utóbbit váltotta fel 1947-ben az USA 32. elnöke, a New Deal-es Franklin Delano Roosevelt.”

Article here:
http://www.stop.hu/belfold/az-amerikai-nagykovetseg-hoskent-tekint-ra-a-fidesz-elsoporte/855843/

That makes sense. I doubt the Hungarian government in power in 1947 was a great fan of Teddy’s, but weirder things have happened so I could be wrong.

womack
Guest

Yes, indeed it seems to me too that FDR is the more likely one. There have been statements on the internet about Teddy, I even remember TGM saying it was Teddy, but probably it was FDR.

dvhr
Guest

Teddy Roosevelt is virtually unknown in Hungary.

Webber
Guest

Teddy Roosevelt was once very well known in Hungary. He was the first American president to visit Hungary – in 1910 (the year after he lost office). He was the guest of Count Albert Apponyi. Unless I’m mistaken, Apponyi mentions something about his relationship with T. Roosevelt in his memoirs. Other Hungarian memoirs give vignettes of Roosevelt’s visit to Hungary as well. One little-known one in Hungarian that is well worth reading, and should be re-published, is Szebenyei József, Riporterek, királyok és egyéb csavargók (önéletrajz) (New York: Horizon House, 1945). The vignette of Roosevelt is on pp. 65-71.

spectator
Guest

Sure thing!
I hardly wait till the rehabilitated Arrow Cross members restore the Gömbös statue too!

Brave ‘New’ World, isn’t it?

petofi
Guest

Discussing which Roosevelt!
Typical naval gazing…as if a Hungarian was shown a picture of Teddy, he’d know who it was.

‘Why, that’s Kover’s father, of course!’

spectator
Guest

Couldn’t be!
He is here – the resemblance undeniable!
comment image

spectator
Guest

Just for reference:comment image

Webber
Guest

Some have thought Teddy resembles a Hungarian hero (or vice versa)
See the comment above the picture of the statue to Imre Nagy, here:
http://katiebarnard-life.blogspot.hu/2011/06/hungry-in-hungary.html

dvhr
Guest

What Lovász said was that ” EVEN if a group of academicians brings the question to the floor and if there is a vote, the Academy must distance itself from the ideas promulgated by Hóman. ” He never said that he would initiate or support such an action.

gdfxx
Guest

Oh yes, “distance itself from the ideas”. As if one could separate a person from his or her ideas.

dvhr
Guest

So conclude.

dvhr
Guest

This recent activity around Homan is largely the work of one person. Istvan Varga (Fidesz) initiated an amendment to the criminal procedure law which made possible the reinvestigation of Homan’s trial. Then he himself, this time as lawyer, partcipated in the nullification of Homan’s sentence.
Varga is clear about his plans: he explicitly stated that his next target is the rehabilitation of Bardossy.
http://mno.hu/magyar_nemzet_belfoldi_hirei/rehabilitalhatjak-homan-balintot-1220830

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