The language belongs to those who cultivate it: Finkelstein-Goebbels 2.0

In the United States Arthur Finkelstein is not widely known although, as can be seen from his biography, he has been one of the most important movers and shakers in Republican politics ever since the 1970s. He was instrumental in devising a campaign for Ronald Reagan’s presidential bid and, in general, was behind a number of conservative candidates’ spectacular and unlikely wins for the U.S. Senate. In Hungary, by contrast, he is very well known as the man behind Viktor Orbán’s successful political career.

The article that I will summarize and excerpt (part 1 today) is by Mária Vásárhelyi, the well-known sociologist whose works deal primarily with media affairs and public opinion. It analyzes language as an instrument in forming public opinion by the ruling political elite. As you can gather from the title, Vásárhelyi doesn’t share the “educated” Hungarian public’s belief that Finkelstein gave Viktor Orbán the tools of modern communication that can assure him power for years to come. In her view, he merely refined some old tools of totalitarian dictatorships.

* *  *

In a short time the name of Arthur J. Finkelstein became a household word. In the eyes of the government’s supporters he is “the miracle doctor” who handed Viktor Orbán the weapon of communication that allows him to get and hold onto power for a long time to come. For the democratic opposition he is the devil incarnate who has supplied the prime minister with the most extreme negative propaganda tools–lies and slander included, which can destroy democratic political culture. What Finkelstein did, however, was no more than the modernization of the instruments of totalitarian dictatorships, including the communist one. The reason Vásárhelyi points to the similarities between the propaganda of the Orbán regime and that of the Third Reich is that we have at our disposal a unique source: Viktor Kemperer’s LTI–Lingua Tertii Imperii: Notizbuch eines Philologen (1947), which was translated into English under the title The Language of the Third Reich.

Viktor Klemperer

Viktor Klemperer was a literary historian of Jewish origin who in 1935 was stripped of his professorship but who in his home in Dresden kept a diary throughout the remaining days of the Third Reich. He paid special attention to language: how the Nazi regime changed the German language to serve its own image. His diary, which he kept for ten years, is “the linguistic analysis of the propaganda instruments and practices of Joseph Goebbels’ propaganda ministry. The Language of the Third Reich depicts how the Nazi empire took hold of and formed German society through language.”

Viktor Kemperer

Viktor Kemperer

Expropriation of the sphere of communication

The secret of Goebbels’ success lay, on the one hand, in the government’s total domination of the field of communication and, on the other, in the transformation of language. Setting up a propaganda ministry was one of the first moves of the leadership of the Third Reich, which very quickly supervised and subordinated all publicly available communication channels. Antal Rogán’s new ministry cannot even dream of such an “ideal” situation.

Goebbels concentrated on radio communication. Already in 1933 he created a Reich Radio Association which every radio employee had to join. At the same time the government removed anyone whom they suspected of a less than loyal attitude toward the new regime. All regional radio stations were placed under one company, the Reich Broadcasting Corporation. Even the manufacture of radios was placed under state supervision. The Nazi state heavily subsidized the manufacture of inexpensive radios. By 1939 70% of all German households owned a radio, a world record.

The subordination of newspapers took longer and followed a multi-pronged strategy. Some of the successful daily papers were purchased by firms sympathetic to the regime. The government tried to ruin other papers not to its liking by withholding advertising money from them. There were more forceful acts as well: intimidation or suspension of the publications. The two official telegraphic agencies were taken over by the state, and thus both domestic and foreign news were effectively controlled. By 1939 two-thirds of all German newspapers were owned by the state company, Eher Publishing House.

It is not difficult to find similarities between the illiberal Orbán regime’s communication strategy and the propaganda of the Third Reich. But since the Orbán regime is not a totalitarian dictatorship and because in the last 80 years developments in communications have made complete central supervision impossible, the comparisons are not in their realization but only in their methods and aspirations. Both in 1998 and again in 2010 one of the first moves of the Fidesz government was the seizure of public radio and television as well as MTI, the Hungarian news agency. At the same time a political purging of undesirable employees took place. They bought up media in private hands deemed unloyal, and, in the case of radio stations, they simply took away their frequencies and gave them to loyal friends. On the positive side the Orbán government, unlike the Third Reich, doesn’t forbid the activities of opposition media, but its plan is to make their existence impossible.

In the Third Reich important ingredients of the propaganda machine were broadsheets and posters which, as Klemperer describes them, “are all the same. One can feel physical strength and fanatic will. All power, firmness, the obvious lack of any thought.” Lajos Simicska already in the early 1990s realized the importance of posters both as a business venture and as a propaganda tool. By the time Fidesz won the election in 1998 Simicska owned 90% of all poster surfaces. By 2010 these posters served as the most important venue for Fidesz campaign communication.  The billboards carried aggressive and primitive messages like “The deed is first,” “Only Fidesz,” “Honor the Hungarians,” “Enough,” “Trust Fidesz,” “Now is the time.”

But back to the Third Reich. In July 1933 the new Nazi regime voted in a law on referendums that made holding one practically impossible. Instead, they introduced the practice of “national consultations.” Doesn’t that sound familiar?

In today’s Hungary, in addition to some independent organs, the most important guarantors of democratic norms, however limited their influence, are the new forums of communication, which even the most brutal dictatorships haven’t been able to keep under their supervision. But the Orbán government is trying; it is testing the freedom of the internet. A good example is its successful intimidation of Deutsche Telekom Hungary, leading to the firing of the editor-in-chief of the internet news site Origo. We can also be pretty certain that trolls paid by the government make it difficult if not impossible to carry on intelligent and fruitful political discussions among people of different political views.

To be continued

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Istvan
Guest

I assume American Hungarians reading Eva’s summary and translation of the Mária Vásárhelyi essay are aware of the fact that Arthur Finkelstein was not just a communications adviser to PM Orban, but also to NY Governor George Pataki and Connie Mack who is now Hungary’s (well really Orban’s) lobbyist in Washington DC (see http://budapestbeacon.com/politics/former-us-congressman-connie-mack-paid-5-million-to-lobby-for-hungary/28101 ).

gdfxx
Guest

He has (and had) many-many other clients, as Eva said. I suggest the sourced Wikipedia entry about him, especially the two paragraphs about his personal life:

“In 1996, Boston Magazine outed Finkelstein as a homosexual in a feature story. In April 2005, Finkelstein acknowledged that in December 2004, he had married his partner of forty years in a civil ceremony at his home in Massachusetts.[42]

Finkelstein is a self-identified libertarian, and has increasingly distanced himself from social conservative elements within the Republican Party.”

exTor
Guest

What relevance does Finkelstein’s homosexuality have to do with anything, gdfxx? It plays to antigay bias.

Finkelstein as a libertarian who is increasingly distancing himself from the Republican Party is acceptable.

MAGYARKOZÓ

gdfxx
Guest

It is a fact listed in the referenced material. It is relevant to me, because I cannot imagine a homosexual to be compared to a Nazi like Goebbels. Maybe you did not know that homosexuals were also taken to concentration camps, together with the Jews, the Gypsies and all the political enemies of the Nazis in Hitler’s Germany.

Guest

So in other words, gdfxx, you are an apologist for Fidesz and Orbán, trying to demonstrate their enlightened liberal thinking – ie. gays are an acceptable part of a progressive, liberal civic society, therefore, if I mention a prominent one, associated to Orbán, then Orbán will be seen as part of the liberal democratic framework?

gdfxx
Guest

Please stop placing words into my mouth, OK?

Webber
Guest

The fact that a gay American Jew is Fidesz’s top advisor is deeply embarrassing to anti-Semites, anti-Americans and homophobes in Fidesz, such as Zsolt Bayer.

Webber
Guest

He also worked for B. Netanyahu, incidentally.

Miklós
Guest
Yes, it supports the theory that jews really control everything (ie. Orban too) and that for Money a jew would sell his own mother (ie. would readily support politicians who are against them). The kapos controlled the camps and the sonderkommandos helped fellow jews into the chambers. “So who was really bad?” I guess Finkelstein would’ve had probably no problem with advising Goebbels either. “These are the jews”. I think Orban is really having a great time receiving these advices from a gay Jew — the urban, liberal, secular jewish Hungarians are upset, not only by the policies of Orban but that he is helped to stay in power to enact those policies by a Jew no less and this gives Orban the most enjoyment. It makes it abundantly clear to the jews of Hungary: they are powerless, meaningless and irrelevant. Their time is over. It supports Orban’s theory which he mentioned in his leaked talk yesterday: “you stay either absolutely united and disciplined our you get extinct soon”. In Orban’s view this rule applies to the leftists and also to the “Jews” ie. according to Orban if in the Holocuast the jews would have staged a united opposition they… Read more »
Webber
Guest

Since when did you have such insight into what Netanyahu and Orban think?
With Orban, all I see is an opportunist who doesn’t believe anything except staying in power by all means, possibly including murder if that’s what it takes.

decency
Guest

Miklos provided a total exercise in generalization.
He should ask for a refund from his educational institutions.
Or let us hear him again, after some revisions.

decency
Guest

Only embarrassing to one, who can feel shame.

Finkelstein is a total shame.

He is an embarrassment to all decent humans.

exTor
Guest

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/10/12/democracy-and-the-demagogue

Relatedly and coincidentally (published today, the 12th) a New York Times piece that Viktor Orbán could own.

MAGYARKOZÓ

Guest

That is really interesting, exTor. In Hungary, Orbán’s speeches about “illiberal” democracies are also a right-wing coded message – In Fidsez circles the word “liberal” is a code for Jewish.

So when Orbán talks about wanting an “illiberal democracy” he means a “Jew-free” democracy- in other words, a Hungary without Jews, just as he said when he wished his pals a “Jew-free goodnight”.

Tyrker
Guest

“In Fidsez circles the word “liberal” is a code for Jewish.”

Where do you get this nonsense from? Have you got any evidence for that? Look, I loathe Fidesz too but what you are saying appears totally unfounded.

Webber
Guest

Tyrker – I would say rather that the assumption among most r-wing Hungarians I know (and I know a few) is that a Hungarian Jew will automatically be a liberal and/or socialist, whereas a liberal or socialist is not necessarily a Jew.

spectator
Guest

Just for the record: Orbán din’t used the term “illiberal democracy” in his initial speech, he’s been talking about “illiberal state(s)”.
So, if you’ll take away the “democracy” bit, your last sentence even more chilling.
Nearly as much as the reality.

petofi
Guest

“Relatedly and coincidentally”–Ugh!
Jangles my writing nerve-ends to read that.

LwiiH
Guest

They are already playing games with DNS servers. NAV has shutdown sites by directing traffic else where. VPNs help but you also need to take other measures.

Member

http://kanadaihirlap.com/2015/04/24/a-fidesz-nyelve/

For hungarian readers. A Göllner goes in depth.
Eva, thanks for the article, the issue is utterly important.

Guest

A great article and a very subtle one, Éva. I think that the way events in Hungary are reported is crucial to how the problems are percieved in the wider world. That is why the first steps a dictatorship takes, is to clamp down on the media, just as Orbán has done.

Guest
Re: ‘That is why the first steps a dictatorship takes, is to clamp down on the media, just as Orbán has done’ Of course. The Hungarian state has a primer in the Reich and Soviet political experience with their attitude to media communications in the early and mid 20th. I would suggest that the issue Prof Balogh has presented can arguably represent the country’s ‘tipping point’ in its march to another degree of autocracy in the country. Media is a powerful component in the dissemination of information in a free society. To slowly and inexorably shut access could be a death knell for Hungary’s so-called ‘democratic’ state. I’d think VO’s ‘communication’ directors both in Hungary and around the world no doubt know how critical the Internet is to the free-flow of information and more importantly in the creation and access to ‘opinion’. VO certainly wants to get so-called high ‘share of voice’ in the clamor of ‘messages’ that populate the digital realm. But correspondingly if he ever succeeds due to repressive measures and gets the chance to shut off or rearrange digital discourse ,as he is now trying within Hungary, it has to be fraught with peril for the country.… Read more »
Webber
Guest

A receptive audience:

Guest

Re the ‘receptive audience’…

I think only those guys go to games……don’t they work?…;-)…

Karl Pfeifer
Guest

Klemperer was a Romanist, a specialist for French enlightment.
His diaries were hidden by a friend of his “aryan” wife.
Austrian journalists knew about Jörg Haider’s homosexuality, but never used it against him, because Haider did not say anything about subject matter. In Hungary no inhibitions to use the sexual orientation of a man in order to discredit him.

Harry Klein
Guest

“Jeder Aufstieg des Faschismus zeugt von einer gescheiterten Revolution” (W.B.)

The success of Orban simply bears witness to the weakness and corruption of the left-wing opposition. That’s all.

Orban was tough and relentless even in opposition, the left-wing was clueless and impotent even in power and by now the leftists simply gave it up.

If a political side gives up its ambitions entirely and cedes both symbolic and physical space to its adversaries (enemies, according to Orban), it’s totally natural for the other side to take advantage of the situation.

Leftist and liberals can only blame themselves. They need to work harder, but I suspect Hungarians in general and leftists and liberals particularly, secretly gain enjoyment from complaining and blaming others (like Orban and Fidesz). They need to do their homework — luckily for Orban, however, they never will as complaining is so much more easier and more importantly if they could defeat Orban the desire would be satisfied. But as we know desire must not be satisfied, it’s goal is to reproduce itself as desire.

Nádas
Guest

“The success of Orban simply bears witness to the weakness and corruption of the left-wing opposition. That’s all.”

Not quite all. The fatal flaw of the old constitution basically handed the country – and the constitution itself – over to Fidesz once they achieved their two-thirds’ majority in parliament. Orbán had the imagination and even the vision (not to mention the megalomania) to take full advantage, and he did.

Member

@Harry Klein: “The success of Orban simply bears witness to the weakness and corruption of the left-wing opposition. That’s all. Orban was tough and relentless even in opposition, the left-wing was clueless and impotent even in power and by now the leftists simply gave it up…. Leftist and liberals can only blame themselves. They need to work harder…”

Knowingly or unknowingly, this kind of counsel always amounts to the same thing: Set scruple aside and ape your adversary, tooth and nail.

Trouble is that to take this advice is to engender clones, not change.

The US differs from Hungary formally, because of its constitution and its checks and balances. It also differs culturally in that the majority of its population is not rednecks and/or tea-party-goers.

No one has written the manual on what to do in a country where the constitution has been broken, media are government controlled, the populace is clueless, and there’s a megalomanic psychopath at the helm.

The Arthur Finkelsteins of this world cater to the scruple-free. (Lack of scruple is the cornerstone of Ayn Rand libertarianism: She offers a rationale for it — a rationale that is, of course, convincing only to those who were already scruple-free.)

Egér a Marson
Guest
OK, but what’s the bottom line of the story? That political parties use the same tricks since time immemorial (How to win an election by M.T. Cicero)? So Goebbels, Putin, The Republicans, Orban, Netanyahu use the same tricks? Yes. But is that new? I actually doubt that Arthur Finkelstein can really give much substantive advice to Orban on politics. On lobbying perhaps, telling gossips how Reagan did it or Netanyhu did it, I can imagine, but whatever Orban does is mostly his idea, his decision. Orban’s been in the front line of Hungarian politics for almost 30 years and for a reason, I don’t think he needed advice to use refugees for his politics. At best he got ‘a permission’ of sorts from Finkelstein, if Republicans can use the story, if the Torys can use it, if the Australians can use it, if Bibi can use TV spots about Arabs which would put Der Stürmer to shame then sure as shit Orban can use the immigrants. And if he can then he will. But mythologizing Finkelstein leads us nowhere. People overestimate the power of advisors, because advisors seemingly offer a quick, identifiable cause to events when in fact the world… Read more »
Webber
Guest

Egér you wrote: “I actually doubt that Arthur Finkelstein can really give much substantive advice to Orban on politics.”

Judging from the fees Orbán has long been willing to pay Finkelstein, and from the substantive amount of time Orbán and his campaign chiefs have spent in conference with Finkelstein, Orbán has no doubts whatsoever about the substantive value of Finkelstein’s advice.

Guest

Is Finkelstein the Machiavelli of our time?

Nádas
Guest

No, he’s Hungary’s Karl Rove.

Webber
Guest

No, he’s America’s Arthur Finkelstein. He’s still active in American politics. He’ll take pay from anyone – Bucharest, Tel Aviv, Budapest; he just doesn’t care. He wins some, he loses some. He tried to stop Hillary Clinton from getting into the Senate in 2006. He lost that one.

Much as I dislike Rove, I’ve never heard of him taking pay from a foreign government that is openly anti-American.

exTor
Guest
Interesting point, Webber. The worth of something starts in one’s mind. In the gym where I pump iron –as yesterday and as later today– there are some personal trainers who have clients who (to my way of thinking) dont really need personal trainers. These clients are in good-enough shape and they are perfectly capable-enough to direct their own workouts. Many newbies who come to the gym start doing things rudimentarily and, after weeks and months, they develop their own systems based on what they see others, the ones who obviously have been around for a long time, are doing. They progress by watching and doing. Viktor Orbán has been around the block more than a few times. His political involvement stems from the late 1980s. He is sharp and really does not need to be told what to do. He has learned much. That’s an outsider’s perspective, which may contradict Orbán’s selfview. He may actually be deeply insecure, which I somehow doubt, but who knows. I don’t know when Finkelstein came onboard. Perhaps Éva can explain if there is a different between the preFinkelstein Viktor Orbán and the current Viktor Orbán. From what I can determine, I dont think that… Read more »
Tyrker
Guest

I think he does have his share of insecurities.

The 2002 election results came as a shock to him, and so did his defeat by Gyurcsány in the prime ministerial candidate debate in 2006 (or the massive demonstrations against the planned Internet tax in 2014).

To him, these were shocking, unexpected events that shook his world.

Istvan
Guest

Ever after what happened last week here in the USA with the internal republican split I doubt your statement “the Republicans were always more disciplined, always played for the long-term” is any longer true. I think the GOP is now as deeply divided as the Democrats, and this includes on foreign policy.

It worries me greatly, because Putin sees this too and is becoming more aggressive on a global scale. We desperately need a consensus on how to address Russian aggression in the world.

Webber
Guest

GOP problems started with the Tea Party, and won’t end until mainstream Republicans figure out how to either co-opt or defeat Ayn Randian isolationist anarchists (yes – anarchists of the r.: they literally want no govt., and actually think Rand – boring as her writing is – is a prophet).
Tea Party nuttiness has infected the Republ. pres. cand. debate to an incredible extent.
Some decades ago that role was taken by born-again-Christians. The Bible thumping has now been complemented with anarchism, and it’s a very weird amalgam.

exTor
Guest

http://hungarianspectrum.org/2015/10/12/the-language-belongs-to-those-who-cultivate-it-finkelstein-goebbels-2-0/#comment-104262 … Egér a Marson comment

Kudos to Martian Mouse for a well-thought-out take on Viktor Orbán. I dont believe that Éva’s article is “mythologizing Finkelstein”, however MM may believe that any mention of Finkelstein’s ‘achievements’ is more credit than he deserves.

If Finkelstein is nothing more than a rahrah guy pumping up Orbán, then it’s money well-spent in Orbán’s mind, which is what Martian Mouse said.

To his supporters, who constitute the largest bloc in Hungary, Viktor Orbán is not a “relentless jerk”, as much as we may dislike him. He is forcefully saying what they all believe. The next election is still years away. Things can happen. The pump that Orbán has gotten from the refugee situation will have evaporated. There will be new exigencies.

As for American politics, whether the Republicans are in disarray (as Éva believes) or are poised to win big (as MM suggests): ¿Quién sabe?

MAGYARKOZÓ

exTor
Guest

http://hungarianspectrum.org/2015/10/12/the-language-belongs-to-those-who-cultivate-it-finkelstein-goebbels-2-0/#comment-104273 … Karl Pfeifer comment

Karl Pfeifer is correct. One must talk of Arthur Finkelstein’s Jewishness and homosexuality with care, so as not to create the impression that either fact is an issue. My earlier problem with the gdfxx mention of Finkelstein’s homosexuality owed to the suggested implication that AF’s gayness is a matter for concern. The explanation by gdfxx is lacking in relevance.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roy_Cohn#Homosexuality

Contrary to what Éva seems to believe about him, Finkelstein is probably not likely another Roy Cohn, who (as many students of American history will know) was recommended by FBI director J Edgar Hoover to Joseph McCarthy. Together, McCarthy and Cohn (a closeted homosexual) fished for communists [the Red Scare] and homosexuals [the Lavender Scare] in the US State Department. J Edgar Hoover likely was a closeted homosexual.

As a presumed libertarian, Finkelstein (as a known rightwinger) may actually possess some principles. He may draw the line at going after a politician just because of that person’s homosexuality, real or otherwise.

MAGYARKOZÓ

Webber
Guest

exTor
“may”, “might”, “could be”

The fact remains that Finkelstein is, and long has been assisting a party in which prominent members have engaged in hate-speech against homosexuals and Jews.

That is undeniable, and with that in mind I couldn’t care less where he “may draw the line.” (why speculate???)

petofi
Guest

Finkelstein…

All this stuff about Finkelstein–he’s nothing but a ‘blind’.
There’s nothing that he can advise Orban on since Orban is as wiley as they come.
Finkelstein’s purpose is simply to appear as if rogue-yiddish elements are advising/misadvising Herr Viktor so that when the shit hits the fan, the pointed finger will be aimed at the US and jews.

Orban needs no advice; and when he does, whether he likes it or not–the KGB-basement-boys give him the lowdown.

spectator
Guest

I don’t think either that Orbán needs advice – he needs assurance. (Yes, the “insecurity” part, what he constantly over-compensating with harshness, boasting and bullying manners.)
What Orbán need from Finkelstein in my opinion is that the ‘renowned’ – infamous? – political communication adviser actually in his payroll, say, in his side.

As long as he pays, there is no chance that Gyurcsány would be able to hire him, isn’t it?

decency
Guest

“Orban needs no advice; and when he does, whether he likes it or not–the KGB-basement-boys give him the lowdown.”

Petofi Gold Coin!

Csaba K. Zoltani
Guest

Indeed, language is widely misused for political ends. An excellent book by Yiching Wu, ‘The cultural revolution at the margins: Chinese socialism in crisis’, Harvard University Press, 2014 gives supporting evidence. Unfortunately opponents, mainly abroad, of the Orban regime excel in this technique.

spectator
Guest

Finally! I actually agree with a whole 66.66% of your comment!

The rest isn’t entirely correct, unfortunately!
You see, the main part goes on correcting the already distorted terms and definitions what used By Orbán and co.
For heaven’s sake, even his Hungarian is a dead giveaway just what illiberal jerk he really is..!

bimbi
Guest

Dear Professor Balogh:
I apologise for writing “off topic” but I have just finished listening to a programme on the BBC entitled “The Roma: One Decade On”, commemorating the 10 years that have now passed since the EU agreement on what was to be for the Roma ”The Decade of Inclusion”. Rather briefly the programme listed the inaction and failure to change in Romania, the physical segregation of whole Roma communities in Slovakia and the reign of terror instituted by the Jobbik thugs in Hungary. If we add to that Minister Balog’s introduction of (illegal) segregated schools, tacitly accepted now by Commissioner Navracsics in his office in Brussels and the evictions in Miskolc we have a Decade of Disgrace for the EU in which Hungary and the Fidesz government have been active partners. Could you please ask someone knowledgeable to give your many readers a report on the situation in Hungary which, I fear underscores the widely-held view that this government treats its (poorest and most vulnerable) citizens with contempt (all contortions of language notwithstanding).

Istvan
Guest
In relationship to a discussion on this blog earlier this week about the use of foreign troops from the V4 in the current migration/refugee crisis in the so called “Common Will” actions to theoretically defend Hungary’s border with Croatia from refugees. Károly Lencsés today has an interesting article about it in Népszabadság it can be accessed at http://nol.hu/belfold/trukk-kell-az-orban-kormanynak-a-sajat-alkotmanyaval-szemben-1568593 The article discussed in general an interesting issue relating to the Hungarian Constitution at Article 47 (2) which requires a two-thirds majority vote by Parliament to allow the stationing of foreign troops within Hungary and Article 47 (3) which allows the Government i.e. Prime Minister’s Office to authorize the stationing of NATO forces within the borders of Hungary with such a two-thirds majority vote. I would be most interested in what others, particularly what Eva thinks of the issue that the article raised. It is also interesting that the small military support from Czech Republic, Poland, and Slovakia over the migration crisis seems to have been consummated at a NATO defense ministers meeting on October 8 held at headquarters in Brussels and announced formally later, yet it was not an official NATO action. It seems somewhat pointless discussion given that a two-thirds… Read more »
spectator
Guest

As someone who keeping a keen eye on the Fidesz/Orbanian communication over ten years already, I fully agree with Mária Vásárhelyi and consequently Eva’s analyse of the subject.

Indeed, there isn’t much new here, the good ol’ way still working just fine!

Actualised of course, mainly due to the technology, slightly tailored to fit to the Turul (-buzzard?) instead of the Reichsadler, but otherwise the very same ‘cloth’ used for the new clothes.

Of the wannabe Emperor.
Systematically, through and through.

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