The race to Trump’s White House: The Romanians are leading

On January 17 a blogger who calls himself “Nick Grabowszki” told his readers that Sorin Grindeanu, the new Romanian social democratic prime minister, and Liviu Dragnea, chairman of the Romanian Social Democratic Party (PSD), will attend Donald Trump’s inauguration in Washington. Our blogger’s story was muddled on the details of the invitation. He misleadingly came to the conclusion that while the Romanians will be two of the 120 invited guests, Orbán, who went all out to receive an invitation, came up empty handed. Grabowszki gleefully remarked that it looks as if the government propaganda about the beginning of a beautiful friendship was merely a pipe dream.

Anyone who knows anything about the protocol of U.S. presidential inaugurations is aware that, with the possible exception of the prime ministers of Mexico and Canada, all foreign countries are represented by their ambassadors. The 120 guests Nick Grabowski was talking about were American dignitaries like former presidents and their wives and other important political personages.

If Grabowski had read the Romanian press either in the original or in English translation, he could have found out how Grindeanu and Dragnea ended up at the inauguration. The invitation came from Elliott Broidy, a venture capitalist, Republican fundraiser, and philanthropist. He was a successful fundraiser for George W. Bush’s campaign and currently serves as vice-chairman of the Trump Victory Fund. The invitation covered three days of events, including a private breakfast with foreign officials at the Trump Hotel in Washington, the candlelight dinner the evening before the inauguration which both Donald Trump and Mike Pence attended, the inauguration itself, and a ball.

And indeed, the two Romanian politicians got the royal treatment. On the first day they met Michael Flynn, future national security adviser in the Trump administration, and Ed Royce, chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee. Dragnea and Flynn apparently “discussed the excellent perspectives of the strategic partnership between Romania and the United States, and the fact that national security and stability are two key factors for the development and prosperity of a nation.” Naturally, the Romanian politicians stressed their country’s determination to spend at least 2% of GDP on defense. In turn, Flynn confirmed the United States’ special interest in Romania. The conversation with Royce was also described as pleasant, during which Dragnea assured the American politician that “Romania will continue to be a reliable pillar for transatlantic relations.”

During the candlelight dinner Dragnea had a chance to exchange a few words with Donald Trump, informing Trump that he “wanted to take the strategic partnership between Romania and the United States to a new level,” to which Trump’s answer was: “We will make it happen! Romania is important for us!”

Donald Trumps shaking hands with Liviu Dragnea

The Romanian politicians obviously started off on the right foot with the Trump administration, which is especially remarkable because they had been anything but enthusiastic about Donald Trump during the presidential campaign and had favored Hillary Clinton. Yet it seems that, unlike Viktor Orbán, they didn’t put all their eggs in one basket. Through Broidy they had a “friend” in the Trump camp, who, when it was important, lent a helping hand to Romania.

Orbán, on the other hand, publicly committed himself to Trump at the time when the Republican nominee’s chances were close to nil. So why didn’t Orbán receive a similar invitation from some Trump insider, especially since the Orbán government has a highly-paid lobbyist, Connie Mack, a former Republican congressman?

To that question there might be an easy answer. Mack is one of those old-fashioned Republicans who found Trump an unacceptable candidate for the presidency. He made no secret of his feelings. In a June interview with Larry King he expressed his low opinion in fairly strong words and admitted that he had no idea what he was going to do when confronted with the ballot on November 8. His disapproving description of Trump was “translated” by 444.hu as “a coward, a shame, a hypocritical fool, and a violent bastard.” Surely, Mack was not the man to curry favor with the Trump crowd.

It took a while for Mack to recover from the shock of the election, but by mid-December Magyar Idők triumphantly reported that, while in Budapest, he had announced that the Trump-Orbán telephone conversation was a very promising beginning, which will be followed by good U.S.-Hungarian relations. He added that “in Trump’s eyes, Viktor Orbán is an important leader not just in Hungary but also in Europe.” As if he has any idea about what Trump thinks. He added that “Donald Trump will bring a new kind of leadership mentality” to American politics. I’m sure Mack is right about that.

It is almost a cliché in Hungary that the Romanians are much better diplomats than the Hungarians. The proof? Their successes during the two world wars. Unlike Hungary, they managed to end up on the winning side. However, these successes are attributed to the slippery nature of Romanian politicians. They are untrustworthy allies who always manage to end up on top. Therefore, it shouldn’t surprise anyone that the Hungarian right-wing press finds the two Romanians’ visit to Washington proof of Romanian duplicity.

Magyar Idők simply refuses to talk about the invitations because that would call attention to Viktor Orbán’s absence from events that Dragnea and Grindeanu attended. On the other hand, 888.hu in its typical fashion published a short article on the subject straight from Bucharest. The invitations are described as “purchased goods” to bolster Liviu Dragnea’s role in domestic politics. The reporter ignores all the information available on the source of the invitation and the description of what events the invitations covered. He describes Dragnea’s appearance at the candlelight dinner as accidental, as if he crashed the party, and intimates that he paid someone off to get in. The whole thing is a “seftelős” Romanian story. The Hungarian word “seftelő” comes from the Austrian-Bavarian “gescheft” and means somebody who is known to be a shady businessman. It is true that tickets cost between $25,000 and $1 million depending on the “package,” but my reading is that a certain number of tickets were assigned to important people on the team who could then dispose of them as they saw fit.

Attila Ara-Kovács, DK’s foreign policy spokesman, wrote an opinion piece on the Romanian politicians’ visit to Washington. Ara-Kovács, no friend of Trump, says that it is quite possible that in the future Dragnea and Grindeanu will be sorry that they were congratulating Trump on January 20, but the fact is that their appearance was in the interest of Romania. They don’t share Trump’s optimistic assessment of Putin, but Romania’s national interest dictates good relations with the incoming president. In contrast, there is Orbán, who unabashedly courted Trump for months and yet wasn’t able to secure an invitation.

Indeed, it is very possible that the two Romanian social democrats might not be so happy about their invitations if they find out that Heinz-Christian Strache, chairman of the Austrian Freedom party, also received an invitation. Trump’s national security adviser, the same Mike Flynn that Grindeanu and Dragnea encountered in Washington, had met Strache in December in New York. Considering Strache’s reputation as a neo-Nazi, the Trump team wanted to keep the meeting quiet, but Strache bragged about it on Facebook. According to Occupy Democracy, Strache also attended the inauguration. His invitation came from Representative Steve King of Iowa, who according to this anti-Tea Party site “is one of the worst congressmen to ever sit in the House of Representatives.” Strache’s invitation “speaks mountains to [Trump’s] willingness to welcome such hateful individuals [as Strache] with open arms.”

Another strange guest at the inauguration was Pauline Hanson of One Nation, a nationalist, right-wing populist party in Australia often accused of racism. The story is confused, but the ticket came from Republican congressman Adam Kinzinger, who claims he didn’t know the ticket would end up in the hands of One Nation because apparently it had been requested by the Australian Embassy. Whatever the case, Pauline Hanson tweeted a few days ago: “Would you believe it? I have been gifted tickets to the Presidential Inauguration Ceremony.”

Viktor Orbán, I’m afraid, will have to wait for a while to shake hands with President Trump, whom he so admires.

January 21, 2017
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Istv an
Guest

Probably of greater significance for the world today was the fact that millions of Americans today marched against President Trump in the women’s marches. Here in Chicago there were between 150,000 and 200,000 demonstrators, my wife, my oldest daughter, and I among them. My youngest

Ferenc
Guest

I’m very impressed by the Women’s Marches, so these demonstrators made their stance against Trump very clear. Unfortunately I didn’t see nor read anything about any marches in so called ‘Trump’ areas, so don’t know if there were.
Best is if he demonstrators continue now with reaching out (from their ‘wealthier’ locations and positions) to Trump ‘areas’ and voters. And that reaching out should not be in a ‘Trump’ way, with hollow words only. But genuine offer their help and discuss together solutions to seriously make living in those areas better.
For example in areas with closed coal mines, start up with sustainable green-energy solutions for the future.

webber
Guest

(DC’s Homeland Security Director Christopher) “Geldart says it is safe to say the crowd at the Women’s March exceeded the 500,000 that organizers told city officials to expect. That would make it one of the largest demonstrations in the city’s history.” AP report.

As to your idea;
“Start ups with sustainable green-energy solutions” was Obama’s policy. It was great, in my view. And where did most of those start ups thrive? On the sunny and windy bits of the far West, and in areas where people were open to alternative energy ideas (getting “off the grid” is a natural for Westerners). Nowhere near coal country.

Coal country is rainy and mountainous. It was always poor. It took a long time for unions there to get rights for coal miners. And now those coal mines are closed. Some coal miners must surely HATE sustainable green-energy solutions.

The problem isn’t just America’s. Something has to be done for the poor throughout the Western world. Time for the left to get back to leftist values:

Ferenc
Guest

“some coal miners must surely HATE sustainable green-energy solutions”
You’re right, but hate doesn’t bring anything good for nobody and hate can be ‘overwon’. So as I said before reach out seems to me the best way.
PS: sustainable green-energy solutions are not limited to sun and wind only

Guest

After having been to the USA around 30 times I can say that they are still the worst polluters and champions of inefficiency – and some people are actually proud of that!
My wife got a real shock when she accompanied me to Florida, seeing how carelessly the people there (not all of them of course …) treated the environment – just like in Hungary (although on a smaller scale here …).

It can’t be a question of intelligence, it’s information and teaching people how to conserve resources – but obviously many politicians are not interested in that!

It’s a real shame.

webber
Guest

Wolfi, if you visit the W. Coast in the near future, you’ll be amazed by something – the number of solar panels, and where they are. You see them everywhere now.

webber
Guest

P.S. If online data is right, a higher percentage of Americans have hybrid or electric cars than Germans now (Norwegians are no. 1).
Of course, pollution is different in each state (California is pretty good), and of course there are still gas guzzlers on the road, but things have changed.

The worst Western country I have seen for trash on the streets was Britain a few years ago. I hope that has, or will change.

Guest

Yes, Webber – already 20 years ago in NYC and St Pete (Florida) I was astonished re the volume of recycling – but on the other hand inefficient systems using lots of energy still abound, we might check and compare the energy use of the countries …

Re trash:

My wife’s US relatives visited us last year on a trip through Europe and the first thing the teenagers told us was the unbelievable amount of trash they saw – in Italy! Even in the famous cities like Naples, Rome, Venice etc …

Guest

Garbage collection in famous Italian cities is in the hands of the mafia. They leave garbage uncollected in order to extort more money from the municipalities.

Guest

Webber, you’re totally right re the West coast – we’ve seen tose “solar farms” on our travels there and we were very happy – but you surely know that California is an exception in the USA (there also Hillary won a vast majority of votes …).

PS and rather OT:

And on our last jorney through the East we rented a Prius! Actually we wanted just a small car but the Alamo/National rental stations didn’t have any and I didn’t want a large SUV – so in the end we compromised:
The guy offered us a Prius for a modest extra amount of $s – he said that I’d save that money by using less gas and I accepted because I wanted to try the Prius …

Wasn’t a bad experience at all – our consumption at the end was 45 mpg, not bad because there were long trips on the interstate. We drove from Nashville via the Smokey Mountains and Atlanta to Charleston, down the coast via Hilton Head Island, Savannah and St Augustine to the Space Center, Orlando and St Pete on the Gulf Coast and then back.

webber
Guest

Well, for a road trip a hybrid is not bad, but not the best.
They are best in cities, because (as I suppose you know) their batteries fill when hit the brakes, and that means city driving is best.

Guest

Again rather OT:

Webber, we had a nice mix of road trip, the mountains and cities of course. But you’re right – when I was in a hurry on the interstate, the computer showed 25 mpg, while cruising along the Florida/Georgia seacoast it was totally different. For me as an IT person there always was the danger of looking too much at the screen that showed energy consumption or recuperation, the state of the accumulator etc. Of course I had seen many of those roads before but for my wife the whole trip was new and interesting!

webber
Guest

Wolfi “California is an exception…” A similar situation can be seen in Oregon and Washington states, where wind farms are spreading along with solar.
As to exceptions
And Italy is an exception in Europe, and Germany is an exception, and The Netherlands is an exception.
If you think about it, every American state is an exception, and every European state is too.

Istvan
Guest

Daughter marched in Scanamento Ca accompanied by several other women soldiers, not in uniform of course. Trump was apparently upset and his press spokesman attacked the media for claiming the Women’s march in Washington DC today was twice the size of the crowd at his own inauguration yesterday.

But the Romanian and Hungarian officals desperately seek an audience with the man the marchers called today “President and pussy grabber Trump.” I guess if you gravel before Putin you should show Trump the same courtesy.

petofi
Guest

“Grovel”, Istvan, the word is ‘grovel’. And yes, Hungarians
are born to it… master grovellers, one and all-

Istvan
Guest
Sorry Petofi its my auto-check word anticipation software that drives some spelling errors, but I am glad the concept got through. I would add that unlike you I did not claim the Hungarian people are going to Trump like beggars before their Lord, but the officials of the government are, and in Romania too. As those same officials do with Putin. The critical factor here is a wide swath of the American people, led by women in our country who were so outraged by Trump that in mass they took to the streets. Everything from women soldiers like my own daughter (not a career move by the way), the LBGT community, traditional feminists, Anarchists, environmentalists, animal rights activists, Black community activists, Latino community activists supporting undocumented people, to Democratic Party supporters lamenting their defeat turned out. Yes even some totally alienated conservatives like myself were there. In fact these protests went world wide. Unlike the Hungarian, Russian, and other people of Central Europe the American people have no awareness of direct rule by the oligarchs. The rule of the super rich has always been mediated by a political class of flunkies, progressives, and assorted hustlers, now to a degree the… Read more »
webber
Guest

I doubt Trump will last four years.

Ferenc
Guest

Just watched djT’s reaction to the number of people mentioned in the press (inaugurations only, no reaction to the demonstrations at all!!).
You might be right Webber, my doubts are going sky high!!!!

Ferenc
Guest

PS: even the former Gambian president seems to have more sense!!

e-1956
Guest

petofi, I wanted to award Istvan a petofi cross. I am not sure anymore. Let us defend ourselves against the russian disinformation. Let us defend ourselves against their polarization. Let us unite the men and women of America to think along the Enlightenment.

wrfree
Guest

I don’t know about the ‘Enlightenment’ angle e-1956. I think you have a much favorable view of the average American knowledge and understanding of history than I do. Right now we have a POTUS whose total life angle was devoted to the making of money, gelt, dinero whatever. The country now is on a sort of populist ‘autopilot’ into the unknown and history is the last thing most think about when it comes to picking up its lessons to help forge the future. Mr. Trump is starting something new: installing amnesia into the American brain.

Guest

The current POTUS will be allowed to make all the dreadful changes that his Cabinet and the Republicans want him to do. Then it’s away with him.

Melanie Zuben
Guest

“President and pussy grabber Trump.”

Apart from bringing the pussy back to fashion (it’s most unfortunate that there are feminists who can’t see that), Donald Trump has a big task ahead of him. He’s expected to create a better world for us all.

As far as the international online media is concerned, how about working on restoring real conversations to heal misunderstandings/lies/confusion and resentments in the world? If you place high demand on politicians, you should also make an effort to change your behavior.

Ferenc
Guest

As far as I understand he’s only claiming to make it better for all US. For the other and bigger part of our globe he doesn’t seem to be interested, nor respectful!!

Latefor
Guest

Maybe other countries will follow him (re: protectionist economic model) and small countries, such as Hungary and also small businesses all over the world will be given a chance to exist and recover from the effects of Globalisation. Let’s wait and see.

Guest

You’re even crazier than I thought – after applauding the “protectionist economic model” you’ll probably also be happy with the next step:

Wars – like we had them in Europe for hundreds of years …

Melanie Zuben
Guest

Excuse me? Who is “crazy”? We have wars and millions of refugees now, as we speak. Do you think this is the result of LOVE?

webber
Guest

Good point. It could be because of all of Orban’s lies that Trump did not invite him to Washington first. He has a big task in front of him.

webber
Guest

Yes, we can thank Donald Trump for making those pink hats so fashionable.

Zoltan Bretter
Guest
About that cliché that Romanians are better diplomats. I think they are better politicians, if politics means shaking off ideological burdens and acting according to the requirements of the situation (at least this is Machiavelli’s definition). In 1916 Romania signed a secret treaty with Russia and France, who wanted Romania to join the Allies in the war. Transylvania was promised to them (at that time Woodrow Wilson knew nothing of this), and they realized that the great historical opportunity has arrived. Were there any chances for Hungary to retain Transylvania? The great powers, especially France, since the 16th century envisaged Romania as one of her Eastern sisters and even considered a union with Romania to enclose enemy number one, Germany. In 1944, August the 23rd, Romanian king Mihai I put under arrest the fascist leader Antonescu, while Soviet troops already invaded the North Eastern part of the country. Duplicity or simply just recognizing “national interest”? Was Horthy able to do the same in Hungary? The current Romanian leadership, according to their self-characterization is “social democrat”. Meanwhile Romania is the American outpost in the East, with all its strategical resources, that Hungary doesn’t possess. Interest doesn’t smell, so Romanians attend happily… Read more »
webber
Guest

Zoltan, being a good diplomat is not racial, not cultural, and not genetic.
It cannot be passed from one generation to another automatically.
It takes hard work, and study. That is all. A certain discrete but friendly character helps, but study and hard work are most vital. Such characters can be found in every nation.

Those who are lousy diplomats are not bad because they are Hungarian. Those who are good are not good because they are Romanian.

The way to become a good diplomat is to study hard, learn the basic rules of diplomacy, and study and learn to accept the quirks of foreign cultures and governments, and individual foreign politicians. It also helps to be a congenitally friendly and cheerful person.

Learning the ropes of diplomacy takes a lifetime of work. Hard work. It never ends.

Member

True, but Zoltan does talk about diplomacy, not diplomats. There is a huge difference.

webber
Guest

In this case, I don’t see the great distinction. Without (qualified) diplomats, what is diplomacy?

Member

You have to value organizations more 🙂 A country may have extremly qualified diplomats and a poor diplomacy, or rather mediocre diplomats and a successful diplomacy.

webber
Guest

In this case, there is no distinction.
Those Hungarians who split hairs over semantic meaning are legalistic nihilists, and never, ever made good diplomats or diplomacy.

Zoltan Bretter
Guest

@webber: I was talking about “politics” and not necessarily diplomacy. (As a former diplomat I have some guess what this really means, but thank you for your advice, I’m going to work hard 🙂 I wanted to pick some points in history to show that in those cases Romanians have succeeded in seizing the opportunity, not only just to draw a parallel between now and then, but to show that is indeed a cliché to talk about Romanians as “natural born diplomats” (so, we agree) or to attribute their success entirely to “Byzantine duplicity”. Good, realistic politics instead of world-redeeming dreams or moral fundamentalism. (It would be another story to talk about the terrible price of success: suffocating nationalism, national hysteria, to use again Bibó’s words.)

webber
Guest

Well, if you as a former diplomat implicitly admit that Hungarian diplomacy has not been an unending series of success stories, what can one say?
Romanian diplomacy has had its failures, too.
I would say that Hungary’s earlier entries to the EU, NATO, and to Schengen (earlier than Romania) was a great period of success, but it seems some Hungarians these days disagree.
Perhaps you were in diplomacy in those good years? If so, kudos.

Otto Hoffmann
Guest

My bet is that in Romania deep state entirely controls Romanian politics and it is a rather unified, sophisticated actor.

From what I gather the control (effectively capture) by the security establishment is probably not significantly smaller in current Romania than it was under Ceaucescu, it is operating with basically the same capacity.

In Hungary on the other hand deep state is currently subordinate to Orban, although it is not always subordinate to politics (the Hungarian deep state did successfully oppose Gyurcsany when it became obvious that Gyurcsany was not loyal to the interests of deep state, having sacked Andras Toth for his buddy György Szilvásy). But basically current party politics, the interests of the Orban family etc. take absolute precedent over state security and long-term foreign policy.

The Romanian deep state is a much more stable, strategic power actor and is thus naturally more successful when compared to more volatile actors.

webber
Guest

Again denigrating Romania, a NATO ally? If you can’t fault their politics, you attack those who carry them out?

Do you know what happened to Securitate headquarters during the Romanian Revolution?

And did you know that there never was lustration in Hungary?

So, where is the “deep state” in control? Hmmm?

I believe Orban is and was (in communist times) a member of the “Hungarian deep state”, which in normal English we’d call former communist secret police.

webber
Guest

Romanians better at diplomacy than Hungarians?
Maybe because they don’t denigrate their NATO allies when they meet with Americans? Maybe because they really do take the NATO alliance seriously?
(Hungary is Romania’s ally, is it not?)

bimbi
Guest

On the President of the United States of America – speaking at the CIA HQ:

“And then they say, ‘Is Donald Trump an intellectual?'” Trump said. “Trust me, I’m like a smart person.”

Well, that at least is true, he is “like” a smart person. He has two feet, a mouth and an asshole – but he has difficulty deciding into which orifice to put his feet.

wrfree
Guest

Hehe… You know if things keep on with POTUS Trump and his dalliance with ‘Strachian’ invitation strategies one of these days it will sandbag him to a pretty bad result. For him and for our country. I await how he plans to execute his goals for America. One wonders with his oblique perspicacity whether the ‘carnage’ won’t burn him first.

And as for VO I can’t see him stewing. He’s a populist for the people no? Those populists and their mantras always stick together. VO will never turn down a drink later on with the Trumpster.

Ferenc
Guest

Just found this (brilliant) clip, have a look:

Dia
Guest

You can have both Dragnea and Grindeanu if you want them.. consider them a gift from the Romanians!

Radu Calafus
Guest

Guys , don’t worry about this trip , many media outlets have mentioned that this type of acces is sold for about 500 000 USD / person . Yes our politicians (important to mention is that Dragnea is the president of PSD ( socialist party – biggest in Romania ) is the continuer of the PCR (Romanian Comunist Party – first president and actual honorary President of is MR Iliescu – important member of Romanian Comunist Party during Ceausescu era and the only president after 1989 with 3 mandates as President of Romania ).

Mihnea
Guest

No, no, you’re thinking way too far about these 2 characters, Dragnea and Grindeanu. While Grindeanu is Dragnea’s puppet PM, they are on a quest to build image capital toward Romanians. Dragnea, a convicted felon for election fraud, whould like to portray himself as pro-American, in contrast to the strong anti-Russian sentiment amongst Romanians. It’s hard to explain in a couple of sentences but it is just a piece of a larger puzzle, a puzzle in which Dragnea and PSD will take much of the power in Romania and put an end to any anticorrution efforts.

Robb
Guest

Actually, one side of the Romanian political spectrum got used to winning votes just by waving the Russian scare card and demonising their opponents as being pro-Russia, so Dragnea (how exactly is he anti-American?) was happy to accept the US invitation and shake hands with the US President, thus disarming their rhetoric. A rhetoric which didn’t even work anymore in the elections last month.

Raluca
Guest

“Unlike Hungary, they managed to end up on the winning side”

….

Check history books. They lost both wars. And I won’t mention the rest of the inaccuracies in this article….

webber
Guest

The author means Romania ended up on the winning side in WWI and WWII. That is accurate. Romanian troops occupied Budapest at the end of WWI, and helped in the occupation of Budapest at the end of WWII.

Where are the other “inaccuracies”? Please do mention them, because it’s clear that you misunderstood something.

Raluca
Guest

I am not referring to any occupation. I was saying about the ending of the wars (the conclusion with the main alliances) and in both Romania was on the losing side, not on the winning one.

Member

Woman, you realize this woman has a specialty in HISTORY. Do you not?

Mayhem
Guest

Technically speaking we won the first, and we lost the second. But in the second we got back Northern Transylvania so it was still a win of some sort. In this case, Eva is right. In the WW1 we even got back Bessarabia, which was not part of the deal with the Entente.

webber
Guest

Technically speaking, Romania won WWII, too. Romania was on the winning side at the end of the War. Romania was able to switch sides in time.
So it came with Soviet occupation? So what. That is the post-war settlement, and that is due to geography.
A parallel: The western part of Germany was on the losing side in every sense, but ended up with no Soviet occupation. Was w. Germany a winner of WWII? Of course not. (sure you can argue it was if you like, but it would be a perverse argument).

Mayhem
Guest

Technically we were on the winning side, but our contribution was not recognized and in the end, at Paris we were treated as a defeated nation. When I say that we lost the war I do not mean that we entered in the Soviet sphere of influence. I just meant that our contribution in the war against Nazi Germany was not recognized and we were treated as a defeated nation. We paid war damages as well, something winners don’t usually do.

Romania did not share the fate of Italy, which contributed less to none in the war against Nazi Germany but its ‘merits’ were recognized, whatever the hell those merits were.

webber
Guest

At Paris, Romania got N. Transylvania back.

Hungary lost everything. N. Transylvania, Ruthenia, Northern and Southern Hungary – all lost. The borders set at Paris were slightly worse than Trianon, for Hungary, because there was a minor border correction in Czechoslovakia’s favor.

Romania did not have lasting Soviet military occupation. Hungary did, and the last troops did not leave until 1991.

From a Hungarian perspective, Romania was a winner in WWII, without question.

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