Shrinking population, shrinking labor force, sluggish economy

Given the Hungarian government’s fierce opposition to accepting any refugees, I decided to take a look at the latest Hungarian population statistics.

Since Viktor Orbán became prime minister in 2010, the population of Hungary has shrunk from 10,014,324 to 9,830,485 (as of 2016). It has lost 183,939 persons, roughly the population of the second largest Hungarian city, Debrecen. If we break these figures down by age group, the situation is even more dire. Today there are fewer children between the ages of 1 and 14 (-62,408) and fewer adults between the ages of 15 and 64 (-264,527) than in 2010. What is more alarming is that the number of those over the age of 65 has grown substantially. To be precise, by 164,517, which is about the population of Szeged, Hungary’s third largest city.

Ever since the second half of the 1980s, the natural decrease of the population was around -3.5 per 1,000 annually. Last year was one of the worst, at -4.1. The Demographic Research Institute of the Central Statistical Office predicts that if the trend of the last 30 years continues, Hungary’s population will be under 8 million by 2060.

Current population statistics most likely overestimate the number of inhabitants residing in the country since many of those who moved abroad in the last few years never bothered to announce their departure to the authorities. Their number might be as high as 600,000, according to figures provided by Eurostat and assorted national statistical offices. Under these circumstances, a labor shortage in practically every sector of the economy is unavoidable.

Last summer I wrote two posts about the severe labor shortage in Hungary caused by the low birthrate and the massive exodus of Hungarians. I expressed my belief that without an infusion of foreign labor the situation cannot be remedied. A few days later the National Association of Employers and Manufacturers (MGYOSZ) suggested that Hungary would immediately need about 250,000 foreign workers, who should be enticed to come to Hungary from abroad. Mihály Varga, minister of national economy, agreed with MGYOSZ’s estimate of the situation, but in no time Fidesz published a statement saying that the Hungarian government provides work opportunities for Hungarians, not for immigrants. Both MGYOSZ and Varga got the message, but it turned out that the government “secretly” began the importation of foreign workers from so-called third countries, i.e., countries lying outside the European Union.

Hungary can hope for immigration only from countries with lower living standards than its own. Thus the government gave Samsung Magyarország, located in Jászfényszaru, a town of 5,000 in the northern portion of the Great Plain region of Central Hungary, permission to recruit workers from war-torn Ukraine. Of course, for Ukrainian speakers Poland or the Czech Republic might be more attractive given the easier linguistic communication there, so Samsung had to make its job offer especially enticing. By November of last year Samsung employed about 150 Ukrainians, and apparently their numbers are growing. In addition to their monthly pay of about 125,000 forints, they receive housing, some food, and travel expenses to return home once a month. About 100 of them live in nearby Jászberény in apartment houses; others are still in temporary housing on a camp site. The 125,000 forint salary isn’t much, but in comparison to what they would make in Ukraine it is considered to be quite good. Index interviewed a couple who are all set and ready to settle in Hungary. In a few years they will be able to save enough money to buy a house in one of the nearby villages. Another man with a Hungarian wife is learning Hungarian in order to become a Hungarian citizen.

The Ukrainians working on the Samsung assembly line were given on-the-job training. The same is most likely true of the six Indian guest workers who milk cows on a dairy farm in Sarud, close to Eger. Locals were either not interested in the job or, once hired, didn’t work out. The owner of the dairy farm heard about Indian workers at another farm who were highly praised. So he decided to follow suit. The first six have arrived. They are so hard working and reliable that the Hungarian dairy farmer has nothing but praise for them.

Sándor Csányi, head of Hungary’s largest bank, established a slaughterhouse in Mohács. He had a terrible time finding butchers because experienced Hungarian butchers had left for Germany a long time ago. Supermarkets also have a very hard time finding workers, and their management teams have been thinking of ways to fill these positions–one strategy is to retrain public workers. The few migrants who received permission to stay in Hungary quickly gain employment–mind you, mostly by foreign-owned firms.

The government is now trying to remedy the serious labor shortage by allowing retirees to accept tax-free part-time jobs. It was only a few years ago that the Orbán government insisted on a mandatory retirement age of 65. Now the government is trying to entice retirees to return to work.

Hungary, of course, is not alone in facing this problem. Germany’s labor shortage won’t easily be remedied with often unskilled migrants who don’t speak the language. But immigrants learn fast. With a well thought out plan, within a few years Germany might solve its labor shortfall. Great Britain, on the other hand, will be in trouble if Theresa May’s government succeeds in putting an end to or severely restricting immigration to the British Isles. For example, Brits show little interest in working in hotels and restaurants. In one chain, Pret a Manger, 65% of the employers are from countries outside the European Union. The hospitality industry would probably collapse without a steady flow of immigrants. Only recently Global Future, an employer-backed think tank, reported that the British economy needs an inward migration flow of 200,000 people a year “to avoid the catastrophic economic consequences” of Brexit. They warned that if the UK refuses to be flexible about labor inflow, the country could face decades of slow growth similar to that experienced by Japan. Just today The Guardian published an article that recounts the possible plight of Hall Hunter Partnership, a business that grows 10% of the UK’s strawberries, 19% of its raspberries, and 42% of its blueberries on thousands of acres. The company needs 3,000 pickers, who come from Bulgaria, Romania, and other East European countries. The opponents of EU membership talked about sovereignty and control, railed against the free movement of labor, but “what they didn’t mention is the way the British food supply chain has, over the past 30 years, become increasingly reliant on workers from elsewhere, both permanent residents and seasonal labor.” Around 20% of all employees in British agriculture come from abroad, mostly from Romania and Bulgaria, while 63% of the employees of members of the British Meat Processors Association come from outside the UK.

Indeed, the example of Japan might be a good illustration of what could happen to Great Britain if it closes its doors to immigrants vital to maintaining its economy. Japan’s birth rate has been dropping since the 1970s. “One percent shrinkage in population will slow Japan’s economic growth by about half a percentage point each year. So 0.5 percent of GDP is about 2.5 trillion yen ($2.95 billion) every year that’s potentially lost economic revenue,” according to an economic expert on Japan. He thinks that Japanese society will finally have to decide that they must embrace the idea of immigration. This is not going to be easy in insular, quasi-racist Japan.

The same holds true in Hungary, given Viktor Orbán’s insistence on “cultural purity.” It is impossible to maintain a robust economy with a shrinking workforce and an aging population. Something must be done.

May 21, 2017
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Don Calea
Guest

I am confused and sad. How come that in Hungary they do not use automated cow milking machines? They are available and widely used. Now they also have robots that pick/harvest soft fruits. Anyways within a short few years due to more automation and spread of robotics they will need fewer workers. How come that this article did not address these automation issues? I feel that this article is an alarmist article trying to sell immigration to Hungary.

Guest

Another day,another name – for the same old fascist little troll creature which hasn’t read the article even probably?

Anything to not get foreigners in Hungary …

PS:
Did you know that among the next wave of immigrants there will be thousands of Pirez people – the most hated enemies of Hungary!

Member

Pirezians just come here to have a bunch of children and milk the welfare system. They also don’t take care of their houses, which drives property values down. Get them back to Pirezia now.

Member

Do you really find this such a funny topic?
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Guest

Stevan, the cruel treatment of animals is a world wide problem. I would hope that in developed countries people care more for them, but …

The reality
Guest

” that in Hungary they do not use automated cow milking machines? ” Because it is used in Hungary since the 1970s. It is not considered high tech.

Guest

“insular, quasi-racist Japan” — Hungary looks pretty insular to me, even though, ironically, there is no sea. But the mentality of the Hungarians is no different. And quasi-racist too if you look at it; although I suspect this has more to do with almost five decades of communist isolationism (ironically too) and the ignorance that came from it.

Don Calea
Guest

Yes insularity was resulting from decades of communism. However, Hungary had bad experience while ruled by the Turkish Ottoman empire. I think that explains their reluctance for accepting Muslim refugees. During Ottoman rule population contracted and so did the economy. Once they were freed from the Ottomans they imported settlers like the German Schwaben, etc to repopulate their territory.

exTor
Guest

Quasiracism ??? Isolationism ???

You need to reconnect the thinkbox, theestampe. Whatever existed behind the Stalinist curtain was a continuation of whatever socially existed before.

The differences between Magyar Stalinism and what existed prior, the differences between Magyar Stalinism and what exists now are relative to the extant economic systems.

Current social values are likely not that much different now than a century ago, except perhaps Hungarians now know that it’s not acceptable to be racist, although they often are anyway. Perhaps Éva can attest to that.

MAGYARKOZÓ

wrfree
Guest
Re: ‘social values’ It does look evident that in these days Magyarorszag is quite a bit challenged in that area thanks to the Stalinst crippling it got in the previous decades. They did it obviously well. If you are conditioned to look at human beings as boxy pinatas who wait for the pummeling hits well life of course cannot offer a fertile and ‘hospitable’ approach to the normal endeavors found in human relationships namely cooperation, love and inviting and forward-looking proactive interaction with others. Morevoer for the future the rise of illiberalism continues the grave descent into that gloom. Another form of political pablum to serve and supposedly protect the electorate from a sort of harm to psyches. So with discussions on immigration it would appear as we look at the country that it is simply the ‘land of bad decisions’ when it comes to their stewardship of how to relate to those who exist in life beyond their borders. Ideology of course bars them from moving on to another plateau where perhaps innovative, broad thinking and cooler heads could prevail in handling the explosive and vicious issue that speaks loudly to the future of the country’s existence. But I’m… Read more »
Ron
Guest

Shrinking of the numbers of the population is a worldwide thing. http://brilliantmaps.com/fertility-rates/

Accept immigration or import is one thing, but it is only a temporary thing, as most people will integrate, and as result also their fertility rates go down.

The question if there is enough labor (high unemployment rates), than the answer is yes. Unfortunately, most jobs available are not appealing due to various reasons, but mainly due to money.

So the question is: Are employers willing to pay more, if this means a higher selling price.
I believe most employers will accept this, if the clients accept this higher sales price.

I believe most clients will accept this if it is reasonable increase. People call it inflation.

So why is this not happening?
I think it has to do with:
Globalization of economy, always cheaper and sometimes better products from somewhere else or substitute products.
Taxes. Taxes behave progressive and proportional, but not degressive.

Guest

Just to showhow successful countries manage this (I’ve written about this before):
Germany has had several waves of immigrants from Europe already and a steady flow of immigrants from all over the world and the head of the German employers’ association has explicitly welcomed the immigrants and declared that the German companies will help with educating and training them …
Of course there are always problems with some people who have difficulties adjusting – except of course Hungarians, millions of which have been leaving (though some times against their will …) their Illiberal/Communist/Fascist country and have no problems at all adjusting to different cultures all over the world – n’est ce pas, melanie?
*End of sarcasm*

Don Calea
Guest

wolfi7777 In Germany now a lot of the white aboriginal German women are raped. Germany now has many terrorist incidents. Oktoberfest in Munich was scaled back due to terrorist fears. Germany lately has honour killing. In Wuppertal, Germany there is Sharia police and the German courts allowed them to continue operating, see http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-38056243 . Actually some white aboriginal Germans are moving to Hungary, Slovakia, etc to get away from the new reality in Germany. This scenario plays out not only in Germany but also in England, Sweden, France, Belgium, etc. For precedent look at Lebanon, it used to be Christian majority country and used to be the Switzerland of the Middle East. Now the Christians are a minority and is no longer the Switzerland of the Middle East.

Guest

Do you believe th cr*p you’re posting, don?
Have you ever been to Germany at all – “Sharia police”, sure …
Read about the (in)famous Sven Lau here: https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sven_Lau
Btw you might see him at the trial which afaik is still running – and after that he’ll spend some time in jail.

The biggest terrorist incident at the Oktoberfest many years ago was Nazi related – and we have these still, that’s a risk of life.

Probably a thousand more people die because they drink too much HFCS in CocaCola and from eating the wrong stuff …

Don Calea
Guest

wolfi7777, For real hands on experience why don’t you move for one year to Saudi Arabia, Iran or Qatar, etc? For even more experience why don’t you move for one year to Afghanistan, Pakistan, Yemen or Somalia? Oops places like Saudi Arabia will not let you move there as you are not Muslim. I am assuming that you are not Muslim. To be able to live there some local company will have to hire you before the move. In Great Britain due to political correctness the authorities in the towns of Rotherham, Oxford, Rochdale, etc allowed young Muslim Pakistani men to rape teenage white British girls over several years. In Rotherham alone around 1400 girls were raped.

Guest

You really are an idiot with your “alternative news”!
The Rotherham story is well documented – and it was a prosecutor of Pakistani descent (!) who got most of the perpretators sent to jail where they’ll rot hopefully.
Now could we compare this to the thousands (I almost wrote millions …) of Catholic priests, teachers, sports coaches etc who have been raping and abusing girls and boys for centuries? Are you happy with them?
Give me the statistics, the number of cases etc and then we can talk again.

PS:
Wjy should I move to some “Muslim” country – I have enough difficulties in a “Christian” country like Hungary!
PS: Just joking -there are no “Christians” in my Hungarian family nor in my German family …
Our favourite book (actually it’s a series of ten volumes …) is the “Criminal History of Christianity” by Karl Heinz Deschner.

Don Calea
Guest
Wolfi7777 at the beginning of this thread you called me an “old fascist little troll creature which hasn’t read the article even probably?” I want to let you know that I did read the whole article. Regarding being a fascist I am definitely not a fascist. Actually I feel that advocating for Muslim refugees seems to me to be a continuation of Corporal Hitler’s policy. Corporal Hitler had three Bosnian Muslim Waffen SS divisions, had the Free Arabian Legion and even had the Egyptian secret military group called the Free Officers. Both Gamal Abdel Nasser and Anwar Sadat were members of the Free Officers. Mohammed Amin al-Husseini, Grand Mufti of Jerusalem was a personal guest of Corporal Hitler in Berlin, during World War II. Both had a common aim of wiping out all the Jews in the world. The facts on British systematic rape of young British white teenage girls in Rotherham are as follows: The prosecutor was Sophie Drake, a Caucasian British female. The judge in the Rotherham trial was a white Caucasian female, Judge Sarah Wright. Nazir Afzal, Chief Crown Prosecutor of the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) for North West England from 2011–2015, himself a Muslim, argued that… Read more »
Guest

TL-DR
And the connection to Hungary is …?
You’ve shown again that you’re a freak!

Richard P. Ray
Guest
The demographics are indeed complicated. Looking at the data for Gyor-Moson-Sopron, it’s been break-even for the working population, increase for kids and retirees. If you look at the kinds of family structure, you would probably find that the two parents are working, or dad is working, mom is on child leave. Grandparents are doing the shopping (median age of shoppers at the local market is over 60, at Aldi/Lidl/Spar/Tesco lower, but lots of grandparents) and cooking, watching the kids etc. so the increase in 65+ is partly understandable. This area is also a really nice place to retire. However, bringing back the 65+ crowd to the labor force is also inevitable. This area has a huge number of people who work in Austria and there are a lot of Slovakian businesses/workers coming here as well, so borders have to stay open in order to survive. What really hurts is the level of talent leaving the country. Engineering graduates can’t find work or are paid a fraction of what they could earn anywhere else. Many stay, but many go as well. And once you go, it is difficult indeed to come back. It will take perhaps another generation to reverse the… Read more »
Member

This article ignores the fact that Hungary is one of the easiest countries in which to become a multi-millionaire. Orban still has three unmarried daughters and Rogan has three strapping sons who will soon be eligible.

exTor
Guest

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http://www.xe.com/currencycharts/?from=HUF&to=CAD&view=1M
http://www.xe.com/currencycharts/?from=HUF&to=USD&view=1M
http://www.xe.com/currencycharts/?from=HUF&to=EUR&view=1M

Because the worth of the forint impacts my existence in Hungary, I occasionally check its value relative to other currencies. Knowing what I know (or what I think I know) about the Hungarian economy, it always surprises me when the forint rises in value, as it has done recently.

I have set up my webpages so that each webpage gives a readout of what the forint did for one entire month with respect to the Canadian dollar, the American dollar and the euro. If you give the three webpages a looksee, you will notice that the forint rose in value with respect to each currency and that the forint has plateaued for the preceding two or three days.

Perhaps someone can explain to me why the forint has gotten dearer. I’m sure that Viktor Orbán is pleased that (at least) the forint is not tanking.

MAGYARKOZÓ

Guest

I use this: http://www.xe.com/currencycharts/?from=EUR&to=HUF&view=1M
My thinking is that economists realise that most of O’s noise is just that – noise, Hungary will continue in the EU as a second rate unimportant appendix (like the rest of the Balkan) and everybody’s become used to it …
Most people will work hard, spend their money on goodies from Western Europe, the best will leave for the richer civilised countries and tourists will continue to come and enjoy the good services and the low prices at the Balaton in Budapest and the other famous spa towns …
And wine and food (and pálinka of course …) will be as good and cheap as ever here …
Who cares about the million(s) of poor people in the country?
End of rant …
Egészségedre!

Member

The USD has tanked against most currencies in recent weeks, and traders are blaming the political chaos created by President Trump.
If you read Hungarian, here are a couple of helpful articles:
http://www.portfolio.hu/deviza_kotveny/deviza/feleves_csucsra_ugrott_a_forint_a_hanyatlo_dollarral_szemben.4.251045.html
http://www.portfolio.hu/deviza_kotveny/deviza/280_forint_alatt_jart_a_dollar.4.250575.html

Why is the forint rising against the euro as well? I can’t explain it, but traders seem to think it has to do with the European Central Bank’s loose monetary policy, according to news articles. Take that for what it’s worth.

exTor
Guest

Thanx, Alex Kuli. Hungarian was my first language, notwithstanding the fact that I grew up in Canada. Now it’s my second language. I can read quite well, however I have problems when the Magyar gets technical.

MAGYARKOZÓ

wrfree
Guest
I envy you that Magyar was your first language. It is good since it provides a solid base from which to branch out on. For myself I think I learn better and prefer say ‘total immersion’ where I can be enveloped completely in the language, a beautiful language I’d say. That is the way I learned back in the past and by the fact of only hearing Magyar in my household. English was not spoken by my parents. I took care of the Ingles part outside of it. Now since the small community I was a part of no longer practically no longer exists it is few and far between experience where I have the opportunity to lift a pint and say as what wolfi put here , ‘Egeszsegedre!’ and not have to resort to translation..😎 Unfortunately a litte rust has set in but nevertheless blindfold me , drop me off anywhere in Magyarorszag and I’d be comfortable as a pea in a pod. I thank the existence of this ‘angol/magyar’ HS by Prof since it forces me to pay attention to learn vocab (which I believe if one is not native to the language is provably the hardest to… Read more »
exTor
Guest

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banknotes_of_the_Hungarian_forint

Am I hallucinating, does the 1000-forint-note depiction of Mátyás király (which debuted September 1998) have an Orbánesque look to it?

MAGYARKOZÓ

exTor
Guest

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MAGYARKOZÓ

Istvan
Guest
One does not have to be a supporter of Orban to recognize that one remedy for the labor shortage is automation. The issue of the declining workforce in Hungary is a logical response to the low cost of Hungarian labor. Both fewer children are being born and as we know Hungarians are emigrating to the EU for higher wages. Importation of foreign workers for firms makes less sense that moving to higher levels of automation. Foxconn Technology Group, which is a major component maker for both Samsung and Apple, has one massive factory in China’s Kunshan region where it reduced employee strength from 110,000 to 50,000 thanks to the introduction of robots. The wage rate for the workers laid off by Foxconn is well below what a Hungarian worker makes. Samsung which Eva discusses in her essay received a $14.8 million grant from the South Korean Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy to develop high-precision robots to replace human labor in what are now called smart factories. The Association for Advancing Automation and the International Federation of Robotics are seeing a rise in manufacturing in the core nation states with higher wage levels due to so called smart factories. A… Read more »
Zoli
Guest
Let me offer a different perspective. In 100 years, there will still be a Japanese culture, even if the island’s population will shrink from 120 million today to perhaps only 80 million a century later. Culture can change and attitudes towards having children may reverse by then. Perhaps there will be a return to growth, or just the 2.1 children needed to stabilize. But one thing that is certain is that given current trends, a century from now there will be no native European ethno-cultural identity left in Britain. Yes, population may continue to grow, the economy will also grow faster, although that does not necessarily lead to better living standards, because the pie needs to be divided between more people. But the Island’s native European population will be a small and still shrinking minority, increasingly lost in a sea of continually growing masses of colonists. Not a bright option for the natives in my view. Can’t think of a single example where such a demographic shift worked out well for a native or incumbent population. So the question here is what would be better for Hungarians, become a minority ethnic group in their own country, which will make it… Read more »
Guest

Really? Fidesz does everthing it can to make the best people leave Hungary as fast as possible. Withe the obvious corruption it’s clear for everybody that you can only have a future outside the country – unless you’re part of the “Fidesz Family”.
All the qualified young people we know are thinking about leaving – and many are already on their way out or have left. It’s always interesting to see the cars with Austrian licence plates over the weekend here in the village – visiting their parents etc. They are the lucky ones working and living not too far away, others only come “home” a few times a year – if at all …
And the children don’t look and behave “Hungarian” at all – they’re typical Austrians (or Germans, Swiss …) in their behaviour.

wrfree
Guest

Re: ‘hunker down and ‘wait’ for the cultural shift’

May I suggest that there can be some exaggeration in success of the drive inherent to get that cultural shift?

Is it possible the country has the wherewithal
to show and develop perhaps a directed intensity towards dealing with the problems ahead? Frankly the country just does not appear to be comfortable taking a proactive position when looking at its challenges. Talk of borders having to be defended only shows the beyond is something threatening and better left out. The country will sit tight.

It would appear the country at this point simply does not have the psychological strength to punch through and effect changes that need to come in their environment. And that is shown through its defensive and isolationist tendencies. Sitting and ‘waiting’ is the last kind of behavior any living construct would be engaged in if it wants to control its destiny. Just my opinion.

Zoli
Guest
Assuming that the answer to every situation that one comes across is always the same is absurd. It is the mistaken assumption that gave way to cultural collapse and extinction throughout human history. There are times to be open when a society can afford it given its circumstances, and can benefit from it on a net basis, and then there is a time to hunker down. If we look in Western Europe, London, Roterdam and other major towns are already places where the native founding culture is in the minority. Within decades, most major cities in Western Europe will fit that description, while given current trends in places like London, the natives will make up at most 10% of the population perhaps and definitely on their way to complete extinction. There is no reversing that! That is not a recipe for cultural self-preservation but ethno-cultural extinction. It most resembles what happened to the natives in North America. Hardly something that native Europeans should desire for themselves. And economic arguments BTW do not really make a difference here. The native Americans also often benefited economically as a result of the arrival of the European colonists. And North America’s economy grew exponentially… Read more »
Member

Unemployment rate is easily manipulated by lots of governments (including Orban’s).

Here is another measure, perhaps less prone to manipulation in the developed countries, “labor participation rate”, as % of total population ages 15+.

US:
1990 vs 2016
66.4% vs 62.7%
It reached its peak at 67.3% in the January to April 2000 period, and after a 15-year steady decline, touched its local minimum at 62.4% in September of 2015.
The latest data was 62.9% in April 2017.
https://data.bls.gov/timeseries/LNS11300000

The weak recovery of this piece of data explains the weak salary raise pressure, which in turn contributed to the fact that interest rates are at a historical law, and FED could keep them low.

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The world, as a whole, followed the US trend.

World:
1990 vs 2016
66.45% vs 62.84% (World Bank data)

Member

Labor participation rate among OECD countries in 2015:
(this series regards the 15-64 age group as 100%, while the US Labor Department and the World Bank series has 15-125 as 100%)

Switzerland: 84.1%
Sweden: 81.7%
Netherlands: 79.6%

Germany: 77.6%
Austria: 75.5%
Czechia: 74.0%

US: 72.6%
Slovenia: 71.8%
Slovakia: 70.9%

Hungary 68.6%
Romania: 66.1%

https://data.oecd.org/emp/labour-force-participation-rate.htm

Member

Four-year change in the labor pool,
breakdown of the official statistics, January-March averages.

15-64 year old population [how many of them actually live abroad?]
2013: 6668.2, 2017: 6442.5 thousand, a 3.38% decrease [only ??]

employed in Hungary (fostered workers excluded)
2013: 3788.1, 2017: 4055.5 , a 7.06% increase in the last 4 years.

their ratio, a more genuine labor participation rate
2013: 56.81%, 2017: 62.95%

PLUS
employed abroad, but counted in the Hungarian labor statistics
2013: 93.4, 2017: 111.7

fostered workers:
2013: 63.9. 2017: 200.7

Chris Lloyd
Guest

“the country could face decades of slow growth similar to that experienced by Japan” But wait. Japan’s GDP PER HEAD is growing at a healthy rate. Most of your argument evaporates if you make this change of metric. Yes, the proportion of the population of working age is reducing but that can be mitigated by work into older years. Just look at ….. Japan.

Observer
Guest

It’s not only the absolute numbers but the age, education, activity, etc structure of the population and Hun is deteriorating there too.
The Orbán rot is sapping then development of the nation.

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