Viktor Orbán admits “a mistake, nay a sin” against Hungary’s Jewish citizens in 1944

I ended my yesterday’s post on a skeptical note. I didn’t think that Viktor Orbán would admit the complicity of the Hungarian government in the death of about half a million Hungarians of Jewish heritage during the Holocaust. I was pretty certain that he would have to say something on the subject during Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s visit to Budapest, especially since the Hungarian government’s campaign against George Soros, as predicted, made visible anti-Semitic sentiment in the country. But I was also more or less convinced that whatever admission of guilt takes place will not be historically accurate and therefore not totally satisfactory.

At least one Hungarian internet news site seemed to be surprised that “Viktor Orbán did it: he stood before the people and said what we really didn’t expect.” Before I go into how expected or unexpected Orbán’s announcement was, let’s take a look at the exact wording of the part of the speech where he talked about the Hungarian government’s role in the Holocaust. He began by saying that it is the duty of all Hungarian governments to protect their citizens regardless of their heritage. “At an earlier time, the government of Hungary made a mistake, nay, committed a sin when it did not protect its citizens of Jewish heritage…. During World War II, Hungary did not comply with this moral and political requirement. This is a sin because at the time we decided that instead of protecting the Jewish community, we chose collaboration with the Nazis. I made it clear to the prime minister that this can never happen again. In the future, the Hungarian government will protect all its citizens.”

I chose the translation of Pablo Gorondi of the Associated Press, with one minor change, because it was the most faithful. A correct translation here is of the utmost importance. Every word counts since, I’m sure, Viktor Orbán himself chose his text carefully. The first word I found odd was “mistake,” which is singularly out of place here. When we talk about a mistake we think of an act based on wrong judgment or deficient knowledge. Surely, this is an inappropriate word in this context. I was also somewhat baffled by his choice of the word “sin,” which is defined as a transgression of a religious or moral law. Being an accessory to murder may be a sin, but it is also a crime; it is a legal, not a moral, concept. In fact, Reuters’ summary of the speech uses “crime” instead of “sin,” perhaps because we normally think of the perpetrators of the Holocaust as criminals. In Haaretz’s interpretation, Orbán “acknowledged the crimes of his country toward Jews during the Holocaust.” Yes, we normally talk about crimes and not sins committed by those participating in the Holocaust. That’s why some of them received death sentences or long jail terms. What was Orbán’s intention when he opted for the word “sin”?

According to Israel National News, the Hungarian prime minister apologized for the country’s conduct during the Holocaust. But did he? Not really. He simply admitted that “the Hungarian government made a mistake, nay, committed a sin” and promised that in the future the Hungarian government will protect its citizens. There is something a bit strange about Orbán’s use of the singular when talking about “the Hungarian government.” Therefore, it is not at all surprising that Israel National News “corrected” Orbán’s prose and talked about “previous governments of Hungary which sinned during the Second World War when they did not protect the Jews.” Indeed, just in the year 1944, after March 19 when the Germans marched into Hungary, there were three different governments.

But the problem here is greater than sloppiness when describing events in 1944. The real problem is that Orbán narrowed his focus to the collaboration with the Germans in 1944. Discrimination against Hungarian Jewish citizens, however, didn’t start with the German-Hungarian collaboration of 1944. No German pressure was exerted on Hungary when in 1920 the National Assembly passed the first “anti-Jewish law,” the so-called numerus clausus which placed a ceiling of 6 percent on Jewish students in institutions of higher learning. That law was changed somewhat in 1928, but its essential features remained in force throughout the interwar period.

And that was just the beginning. After a few years of respite anti-Jewish measures began to be introduced again. In April 1938 it wasn’t Germany that forced the Hungarian government to limit to 20 percent the number of Jews in the so-called free professions, government jobs, commercial and industrial companies. A year later, in May 1939, came the so-called second anti-Jewish law, which extended the definition of “Jewish” on a racial basis and further limited the activities of Jewish citizens in certain categories of the economy, from 20 to 6 percent. In 1941, the Bárdossy government on its very own, without any German input whatsoever, deported about 16,000 Hungarian and foreign Jews to today’s Ukraine where they were killed by German occupying troops. In January 1942 Hungarian gendarmes and soldiers murdered 800 Jews in Novi Sad. By November 1942 about 50,000 Jewish men were conscripted into forced labor units, which subsequently were sent unarmed to the Soviet front where most of them died. In early 1943 the Kállay government removed all Jews from public and cultural life, limited their number in the economy as a whole to 6 percent. All land owned by Jews was confiscated. Should I continue?

Moreover, confining the Hungarian government’s sins to 1944 and describing them as a collaboration with the Germans is misleading. The sad fact is that the organization of transporting half a million Hungarian citizens of Jewish origin via rail to Auschwitz and other extermination camps was the sole work of the Hungarian administration and the gendarmerie. German soldiers were not involved at all. I think most Jewish Hungarians would like to see an admission from this government that the Hungarian sin wasn’t only “collaboration with the Nazis.”

If Viktor Orbán had talked about the atrocities committed against Jews by all the Hungarian governments between 1921 and 1944, then one could say he broke the silence and made a full admission of the dreadful record Hungarian governments accumulated in those years. That would have been a welcome change. But as it is, he simply repeated what President János Áder already said in April 2014 while visiting Auschwitz. I remember distinctly that at that time his admission of guilt was greeted with welcome surprise. It was news. “To understand the tragedy of 1944, we have to face ourselves,” he said. “It is still painful that the Hungarian state didn’t resist the devilish plan of the German invaders.” After March 19, 1944, “Hungary didn’t protect its citizens.”

The Orbán government obviously has a fixed time frame and a fixed vocabulary when it comes to the country’s treatment of its Jewish citizens. They are ready to go that far but no further. And even that is said with qualifications because we mustn’t forget that Fidesz included the following sentences in the preamble of the new constitution. “We date the restoration of our country’s self-determination, lost on the nineteenth day of March 1944, from the second day of May 1990, when the first freely elected organ of popular representation was formed.” In other words, Hungary is not really responsible for what happened after March 19, 1944. No soothing words declared in the presence of Benjamin Netanyahu can change that basic claim.

July 18, 2017
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Delta sounds
Guest

What’s wrong with Orban’s half apology with Natanyahu at his side? No mention of his hero Horthy’s participation in the atrocities that sent 500,000 innocent people to their deaths. Only when the allies warned Horthy to stop the transports or face war crime charges did he call the trains back.
Orban probably knows that. He didn’t come close to Marcon’s unequivocal statement, also with Natanyahu standing by, that French citizens were responsible for the roundups of thousands of Jews in France.
It’s too bad it’s taken 70 years for the Hungarian state to admit some guilt for the Holocaust. If the Hungarian people had only done what the Danes did and protected their Jewish neighbors, no Hungarian Jews would have perished in the Holocaust.
Every nation makes its own moral choices. Some inspire the world to do good with their actions, while others make us weep for humanity.

Jancsi
Guest

I’m a bit confused by this article because the word bűn is very regularly translated as crime. I think it’s dishonest to attribute the use of the word ‘sin’ as Orban’s intention. Understood as crime, I think the meaning of the sentence changes. It acknowledges that the Hungarian government, as however one wants to conceive it, committed concrete actions against the Jewish people–not metaphysical acts (concrete or abstract) committed against a higher power. It constitutes a significant aberration from the standard line of Fidesz. To me, there is far more to unpack here given the recent propaganda campaigns in Budapest.

LwiiH
Guest
Guilt or sin… doesn’t really change the follow on arguments. Facts are, Hungarians without prodding from the Germans started a campaign against the Jewish population that eventually lead to many of them being killed. This “admission” still toes the party line that the blame should be placed on the Germans which we all know is bunk. This is what makes today’s situation somewhat dangerous. In 1921 I’m sure that people did not see where this might lead in 20 years time. Even if they did I’m not sure how it might have changed things. But then people’s thinking is quite short term in how they see events unfolding. Take the changes in the Hungarian educational system for example. There is of course some immediate effect but the full effect of the change won’t be fully realized for possibly several generations. We will be able to look back and understand this change in what has happened but no one can say what the effects will be in the future though we can make a reasonable guess based on past events. If the goal is to avoid another holocaust, it seems reasonable to campaign against hate speaks and to educate, not promote… Read more »
Ferenc
Guest

This discussion about the word “bűn” shows the subtlety of the Hungarian language, as somebody who only has a basic understanding of it these things pass me by.
For me most important and worrying was that OV was stating this only about a previous Hungarian government, without including the head of state (Horthy), the state as a whole and it’s population at that period in time as being responsible. Nor mentioning any governmental decisions or actions done before (as Eva so clearly lists in her post).
Furthermore he acknowledged the sin and/or crime by that previous government, but didn’t show any repentance and was only pushing that each government has to protect all it’s citizens (which he’s claiming to be doing so well now together with is party).
All people and media, who understand the speech as an acknowledgement by OV in the name of Hungary, are dead wrong and still don’t understand what’s really going on in Hungary and most likely will be quite surprised in the future about further developments in that Nationalistic Populistic Mafia State.

Ferenc
Guest

explaining details from my dictionary:
bűnt követ el – to commit a sin
emberiség ellen követ el bűncselekmény – to commit a crime against humanity

Observer
Guest

Consider also “bűncselekmèny”.

Miki
Guest

As jancsi already stated, the word “bűn” can be translated as “crime” or as “sin”. It means both.

In religious connotations it is translated to sin, but in every other case it is translated to crime. Since Orban did not quote or talk about the Bible it is 100% sure the word is translated here as crime.
Only totally dishonest people would try to make an issue about this.

Gábor Halmai
Guest

The legal term for crime in Hungarian is bûncselekmény. Orbán as a graduated lawyer intentionally avoided to us the term, because this would have the consequence to think that Horthy, ‘the great statesman’ committed háborús bûncselekmény, Hungarian term for war crimes.

Tyrker
Guest

“Bűncselekmény” is Legalese. No flesh-and-blood Hungarian would ever use this term in colloquial language. Orbán may be a lawyer by trade, but he was not speaking in a courtroom – he was addressing the assembled press at a “mainstream” press event. I loathe Orbán personally, but your efforts at trying to prove he didn’t actually say what he said are utterly pathetic.

Gabriel
Guest

“Error and crime” not “mistake and sin” according to official web page of governement. http://www.kormany.hu/en/the-prime-minister/news/government-proclaims-zero-tolerance-on-anti-semitism

petofi
Guest

Of course: error & crime.

The Hungarian State is under the protection of the Catholic Church and therefore it could never sin…(ahem).

Guest

Eva, thanks for the concise description of the Hungarian government’s actions starting around 1920 and getting continuously worse until culminating in 1944 – I’ll be using that if someone tries again to concentrate only on the last, most horrible part. Antisemitism was ingrained in people’s minds for a long time obviously – just like in Prussia and Austria and …

I also believe that O is again trying to minimize Hungary’s responsibility – which will make his fans jump to the conclusion:
No it wasn’t our fault of course – and then again return to their daily ration of hate against all foreigners (and everything that is foreign to them like LGBT people …), it’s really sad!

Some people never change …

Akos Rona-Tax
Guest

A small correction: The start date for government anti-semitism is 1920, the numerus clausus in higher education, not 1921.

Member
From the FB wall of a Hungarian colleague (https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?story_fbid=508893292780797&id=100009803915708), sorry for my doubly non-native translation – I just had to share this with you: “Perhaps I have been misinformed by my late mother, because she was a pathological liar. But if not, then I believe that the Prime Minister is in error. His Excellency just claimed that Hungary (meaning: who?) committed a sin as it failed to defend its Jews. Well, if “Aunt Irma”, the old cook, is Hungary, then his statement is not true. Irma took a dreadful risk on the day when the gendarmes took my mother away, and my sister, then three years old, was left sitting under the grand piano – trembling with fear, for days after that she didn’t dare to speak. By the way, the laws back then were passed by true Christian Hungarian gentlemen, and (that’s what the historians say) without any real external pressure. “Vitéz” gentlemen with ostrich plumes beat my mother’s younger brother to death, and they also beat my grandmother half-dead. Perhaps it’s inaccurate to call this “failing to defend”. True Hungarians, members of the nation, appropriated the belongings of Mr Kovács (Krausz) the firewood merchant in Tapolca, and even… Read more »
Observer
Guest

Kudos for the chilling illustrations of this tragedy.

Appalled by the ignorance/apology/malice of fideszniks
I used to put to them the option of one day declaring all such and their families enemies and pass laws for the protection of the naion (a mild numerus clausus, etc versions) against them. You should see the faces.

bimbi
Guest

Brava! Professor Balogh. Your blog today gives a clear and detailed statement of the crimes of a string of Hungarian governments against their own Hungarian citizens of Jewish origin from 1921 to the end of World War II and thus includes the repeated failings of the “statesman” Horthy and the conduct of the Csendörök, the gendarmerie who conducted the round-ups and deportations. No, Viktor Orbán can neither recognize, much less apologize for these crimes.
No, Viktor, not “mistakes”, not “sins” but crimes!

Three days I made the following comment, quoting a Guardian article, on this blog:
““The French president, Emmanuel Macron, has denounced France’s collaboration in the Holocaust, lashing out at those who negate or minimise the country’s role in sending tens of thousands of Jews to their deaths.”
Orbán – not to speak of Áder and the featherweight Schmitt – could, with full justification, have said the same – and more – of Hungary but none of them had the moral stature and honesty to do so.
Our Fidesz government wears the mantle of disgrace.”

The mantle still fits.

petofi
Guest

Mantle, schmantle–have you any idea how many votes, nay, followers, Fidesz would lose if they admitted ‘crimes’…?

Ferenc
Guest

OT
New posters appearing on Mahir (Simicska) info columns.comment image
“a nép nem betiltható, de a kormány leváltható”
“the people can not be banned, but the government can be replaced”
Just this plain text, without any mention of party, company, person, etc. who ordered this poster. According Mahir “a message for the society ordered by a private contractor” (“magánmegrendelő megbízásából közzétett társadalmi célú üzenet”)
http://hvg.hu/itthon/20170718_plakattorveny_jobbik_mahir_simicska_lajos
Curious if this will develop into a billboard war of sorts, all concerned parties seem to be ready for it…

Observer
Guest

Páva tánc again, this “admission” is more of an absolution – there wasn’t an independent Hun state, you know (see constitution preambul), it was the Germans (see Freedom Sq monument). It all fits in the history falsification line of the regime.

No fidesznik will take this as an admission, but rather a skilful trick they were forced to do by the world which hates Hun.

old 1956
Guest

Just shameful confusion.

Stalinist dogmatic twistings can be detected in Orban’s words.

Sin of not defending someone?

Sinning of murdering many, in reality.

Dark shadows have been gathering again all over the FIDESZ ruled Hungary.

Orban talks. Worse, some how ordinary people are paralyzed once again.

Who will lead the nation out of this hole?

A Hungarian Adenauer has never been born yet.

Bibi has lost his mind to add his presence to this crime.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/middle_east/hungarys-orban-collaboration-with-nazis-was-mistake-sin/2017/07/18/262d6d5e-6baa-11e7-abbc-a53480672286_story.html?utm_term=.9aa65ab3fda2

Bibi will not be able to shed this stain from his painful legacy.

A shameful day in Hungary’s and Israel’s history.

Tyrker
Guest

In the Hungarian original, he used the phrase “bűnt követett el,” which translates as “committed a crime”.

aida
Guest

Tyrker, I have fluent command of Hungarian. When the priest in the confessional asks” milyen bunt kovettel el?” he wants to know what you did that contravenes the commandments etc. Those may turn out to be also “buncselekmeny” or criminal acts, as well as sinful acts.
By no stretch of the imagination is “sin” an appropriate description of what happened and if Orban had not tried to take advantage of the apparent ambiguity of language he would have used the word “buncselekmeny”.
Also please put it in context. He regretted the government’s failure to protect its Jewish citizens. That is not the charge against Hungary. The charge is persistent and systematic anti Semitic conduct over nearly 25 years, culminating in forming an alliance with the Nazi regime in power in Germany and in the deportation and murder of countless Jews, Gypsies etc. He has not pleaded guilty to any of the charges on the indictment. “Failing to protect” piffle. The speech is spitting in the face of the victims. As a propaganda exercise it is masterly.

petofi
Guest

@ Aida

A precise formulation.
Well said.

Ferenc
Guest

That might be your opinion, but my dictionary says:
bűnt követ el – to commit a sin
bűncselekményt követ el – to commit a crime

Guest

Of course it wasn’t just “thatgovernment” (which is singled out by that …) which committed a crime/sin – but millions of Hungarians committed crimes by taking their Jewish neighbours’ valuables and moving into their homes …

And of course those who helped with the transports and even the killers …

Talking about “a crime” is idiotic – just as if we Germans would say, it was a sin to elect Hitler and not accept all those things that were done by the people…

exTor
Guest
Think of Orbán’s whisper asided to Netanyahu as APOLOGY LITE. After the brave succinct declaration by Macron in Paris on Bastille Day, it is both not a surprise and a surprise that Orbán did somewhat likewise. Most Hungarians know some important Jewish history re World War Two, namely that the nation was somehow complicit in the murder of Jews. Orbán knew that he had to address the issue of Jews and World War Two for no other reason than he was standing beside Netanyahu, a man who was taking heat in Israel for seemingly going soft on antisemitism, which was the clear flavor of the nationwide flood of antiSoros propaganda. Orbán’s deliberate use of ‘bűn’ was a way of softening the hit on Hungary, its pride still salvageable. Whenever a criminal action is described by the Magyar media, ‘bűncselekmény’ is used. Orbán, by pointedly picking the monosyllabic word, allowed Hungarians to choose their own poison. Most, he knew, would consider what Magyars did merely a sin, not a crime. Most importantly, Horthy (a hero to many Hungarians, but mostso to the rightwing) was unmentioned. As Éva wrote in her June 21st beginning-of-summer article, Horthy is an “exceptional statesman” per the… Read more »
Observer
Guest

Tnx exTor

The second picture us so revealing: the black color of uniforms, the cock feathers of the past Gandamerie, the arm bands – all elements from the Horthy and fascist past in a different mix to deliver the same message – we fascists are here and going strong.

exTor
Guest

http://hirtv.hu/ahirtvhirei/felavattak-a-horthy-szobrot-de-nem-perkatan-1395516

Every time I see Hungarians-in-black at a ceremony I think Fascist! Horthy is a rightwing icon. It’s worthwhile giving the site-link video a looksee.

MAGYARKOZÓ

Jean P.
Guest

It all boils down to the fact that Orban used an ambiguous word where an unambigous word would have been in place.

wrfree
Guest

It is extraordinary that putrid ‘language’ salves continue to be rubbed on wounds that refuse to heal by an government that will not face the truth of its collective past. As if selective and precise ‘lawyerly’ words can simply skirt around the responsibility of criminal deaths of thousands. With this there must be a clamor to ask the question of what kind of consciences exists in the minds of these who rationalize with evasiveness? What kinds of moral minds are hiding in the skulls of those people?

It is inconceivable to think the ‘rationalizers’ have any relationship to the Christ they so fervently and allegedly believe in. Christianity has managed to exist for thousands of years in spite of great trials. But perhaps at this time we are seeing right now the anxious, debilitating and moral exhaustion of a hijacked belief in this the early 21st century. The country to take a Keatsian image is looking more and more ‘like a sick eagle looking at the sky’.

Ovidiu
Guest

Well, after all what has happened in Hungary since Orban took power we have now the grand finale with the (no less) prime-minister of Israel coming to Budapest and saying that “Hungary ‘at forefront’ of fight against anti-Semitism”.
Pretty amazing, isn’t it ?

Guest

A bit OT – but maybe not, re “sin vs bűn “:
The discussion reminds me of an interview with a German socialite Princess XXX who was asked whether she’s really a Catholic.
She said yes and explained the nice side of Catholicism:

Whenever you’ve done anything that counts as a sin – you just go to your priest, do confession, repent and voilà
The sin is forgiven!
While for a crime you might have to go to jail …

I’m sure that O had something like this in his mind – I mean. he’s such a devout Christian …

Anyone remember the story of Luther and his fight against the “Ablass” aka indulgence which was sold by the Church?

wrfree
Guest

Re: ‘the sin is forgiven’

I get the impression they all feel that they’ve been to confession and glad for themselves that they get the Jewish hairshirt off their backs with a few Our Father’s and Hail Mary’s with a novena for a week thrown in for ‘penance’.

But really if the need is to be ‘Christian-tough’ on all that excommunication arguably should have been in the penitential mix as it was answering an egregious violation of God’s law ‘thou shalt not kill’. But even then probably a poor recompense laid alongside the criminal murder of thousands considering the attitudes given to true religious principle.

If Wiesel were alive today his faith would be tested going on pilgrimage to Magyarorszag for of all places he would indelibly get the idea that ‘God is dead’. For now it seems a philosophical fixture in the Magyar zeitgeist.

Laszlo Palotas
Guest

C’est pire qu’un crime. C’est une faute.

exTor
Guest

comment image

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vr70CISwy_k&t=406s

This is offtopic, but perhaps not severely so. This is addressed to Istvan, who I know soldiered in Vietnam. Please give this RT video [Chris Hedges, interviewer & Nick Turse, author] a looksee. Its title is The Hidden Tragedy of the Vietnam War. It also connects to the current Middle East situation.

https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/5gwx98/vietnam-and-the-mere-gook-rule

MAGYARKOZÓ

petofi
Guest

The difference between using the word ‘sin’ as opposed to ‘crime’ is that sin is a religious concept that doesn’t confess a liability–‘crime’ suggests a legal liability on the part of the state.

Guest

Keno Verseck again has a scathing article in the German magazine SPIEGEL on the two populists O&N …
http://www.spiegel.de/politik/ausland/benjamin-netanyahu-bei-viktor-orban-hallo-viktor-schoen-dich-zu-sehen-a-1158667.html#js-article-comments-box-pager
Refreshing to read – also the comments where someone informs us that billionaire Adelson (Las Vegas Casinos) spends a lot of money on conservative newspapers in Israel – but that’s not a problem for Netanyahu of course …

Michael Kaplan
Guest

As usual, B. Eva is an accurate reporter, let alone historian. As a Jewish Hungarian-partial origin- I grew up with family members who survived the Horthy acts of discrimination and murder (prior to and during the mass 1944 deportations). The mass deportations were done by Hungarian officials etc, some 200,000 plus according to historian Istvan Deak, not Germans. Had Horthy ordered all officials etc to stop, no mass murder would have happened in 1944. President Macron got it right in his recent speech. we are still waiting for a Hungarian leader to get it right. Lets not argue about a word or two given the above facts. Thank you Eva!

Member

Pannonian Pavane

Why hang on Orban’s every word when it’s crystal clear he doesn’t mean any of it? Words, for a psychopath, are not for conveying truth, or even what you mean: they are for achieving an outcome you want — in this instance, a show of solidarity with one of the few heads of state that will have anything to do with him.

Member

I agree,
the yesterdays antisemite, today propagates a zero tolerance again.
Orbans disciples must get very dizzy.

exTor
Guest

comment image

http://www.miniszterelnok.hu/orban-viktor-sajtonyilatkozata-benjamin-netanjahu-izraeli-miniszterelnokkel-tortent-targyalasat-kovetoen

Thanx again for the link, Éva. I noticed some weirdnesses (to me) right off the bat. For instance, Orbán referred to the Hungarian Jews as a minority [kisebbség], which they are, but what’s the point of referring to them as such? Is it to suggest that there is no real problem with Hungarian Jews?

Further along, Orbán suggests that there is a flowering/renaissance of Jewish life [zsidó életnek ma reneszánsza], which strikes me as bizarre.

If you’re looking for a future article topic, Éva, you could write a lot just parsing and countering this Orbán blandishment of Netanyahu.

MAGYARKOZÓ

Member

I wonder if Netanyahu was taken to see the Fidesz nazisshrine to their Hungarian Nazi forefathers` lack of guilt (sic) for their war crimes against their Jewish neighbours? I guess not

https://www.tripadvisor.com/Attraction_Review-g274887-d7981192-Reviews-Memorial_to_the_Victims_of_the_German_Invasion-Budapest_Central_Hungary.html

exTor
Guest

comment image

http://www.miniszterelnok.hu/orban-viktor-sajtonyilatkozata-benjamin-netanjahu-izraeli-miniszterelnokkel-tortent-targyalasat-kovetoen

Thanx again for the link, Éva. I noticed some weirdnesses (to me) right off the bat. For instance, Orbán referred to the Hungarian Jews as a minority [kisebbség], which they are, but what’s the point of referring to them as such? Is it to suggest that there is no real problem with Hungarian Jews?

Further along, Orbán suggests that there is a flowering/renaissance of Jewish life [zsidó életnek ma reneszánsza], which strikes me as bizarre.

If you’re looking for a future article topic, Éva, you could write a lot just parsing and countering this Orbán blandishment of Netanyahu.

[This is a resend of another sent more than 3 hours ago.]

MAGYARKOZÓ

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